The Greek Sphinx – A Demon Of Death And Esoteric Wisdom

The Sphinx is best described as a symbol of "arcane wisdom" (Olderr 126), and wicked power in ancient Greece around 1200 BCE. Her disposition is depicted by the mythical story associated with her, specifically, her interactions with Oedipus. The Sphinx had also existed much earlier with other meanings in cultures such as Egypt. Since that time, its symbolism has become so captivating that its meaning is almost proverbial in the Western World today (Britannica 16).

The Sphinx truly fits her title as a beast. In the Greek legend, the Sphinx is a female symbol with the body and feet of a lion, the head and breasts of a woman, and the wings of an eagle (Scafella 179). Albeit the sphinx literally described sounds hideous, the visual portrayals of ancient Greece are nonetheless enticing. Such representations most commonly appeared on ivories, painted plaques, and pottery (Britannica 16). Although there are many representations of the sphinx, for the purposes of this essay, the example used is the Greek Sphinx seated on a short ionic column before Oedipus. This representation is painted on an Athenian vase from the Archaic Period in Greece, between 800 and 500 BCE (Boardman 246).

The name "Sphinx" is a Greek name derived from the verb sphiggein, which means "to draw tight or to bind together" (qtd. In Scafella 179). Her myth is well described by Albert E. Cowdrey in his fictional story The Name of the Sphinx: "Her function was to harass and obstruct Thebes's tourist trade by forcing visitors to answer a riddle. If they got it wrong, she killed them" ( 104). She asked this riddle, taught to her by the Muses: "What is it that has one voice, and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?" (Britannica) Even though it is not explicit in the ancient myth, the meaning of her name suggests she may have killed those who answered incorrectly by strangling them. Her role links her directly to another ancient myth, the tragically ironic story of Oedipus.

Oedipus was the prince of Thebes, who was abandoned by his father when he was born because of a prophecy that his son would kill him. His father bound his feet together and left him on a lonely mountain (Encarta). Oedipus eventually wandered back to Thebes, which was plagued by the Sphinx. Upon being asked her question, however, Oedipus answered correctly: "Man, who crawls on all fours in infancy, walks on two feet when grown, and leans on a staff in old age" (Britannica 16). The sphinx was so distraught, she jumped from her perch and killed herself. The story continues that the Thebans were so grateful to Oedipus that they offered him kingship, which was rightfully his anyway, and he unwittingly married the his mother, the Queen (Encarta).

The Sphinx appeared in Greece for the first time around 1600 BCE, but it was not until later, around 1200 BCE, that the legend took on a identifiable meaning and developed into what is commonly known today. Before the Greek time, however, the Sphinx as a symbol had existed for over one thousand years in cultures such as in Egypt, where it is most commonly agreed to have originated (Scafella 180). While many characteristics have stayed the same in the Sphinx, some central ones have changed. The most obvious distinction is the sex of the Sphinx. Whereas the Egyptian Sphinx was exclusively male, the Greek Sphinx was almost always female. The Greek Sphinx was used typically as a symbol of wisdom and malignance, whereas the Egyptian Sphinx, especially in its earliest forms, was often associated with divinities, and was used as a symbol of protection. It had no mysterious or deceitful nature. An example of this role is his presence "before the temples of the Nile Valley, outside the pyramid of Kaphren" (Suhr 97). Moreover, in Egypt, the Sphinx did not have wings and was often recumbent, contrary to the Greek Sphinx, which was usually sitting, especially on her tall perch at Thebes (Scafella 180).

Looking at the deepest symbolisms of the sphinx, she may well be one of the most elusive symbols of human history. While many theories converge and digress like choppy waves, they have but one likeness, that her meaning is, over all else, enigmatic. One prominent idea, however, is the obvious reference to intelligence being coupled with animalism: "… the hybridizing of man and lion suggests the dominance of human intellect over raw animal power" (Hajar). This idea is further elucidated by Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher in the 1800s: "The human head that bursts from the animal body represents Mind as it begins to raise itself above Nature … without, however, being able to liberate itself wholly from its fetters "(qtd. in Scafella 185). These ideas do well with the time period in which they are situated, in that civilization and war were competing realities of everyday life.

Another interesting interpretation is that the sphinx is a purely psychological symbol, representing the complexity and duality of the human mind: "Unlike many mythical creatures, the sphinx was never believed to be more than a thing of the imagination" (Hajar). In today's Freudian terms, the Sphinx would be considered an element of the unconscious, of whose presence we are certain only due to the tangible consequences of her existence (Cirlot 304).

Lastly, on a far diverging note, a theory eloquently conjectures that "the mask of the sphinx pertains to the mother image and also to nature-symbolism; but beneath the mask lies the implications of the myth of multiplicity or of the enigmatic fragmentation of the cosmos "(Cirlot 304). Although, following with the accepted theme of deceitfulness, this theory is unique in expressing a superficial motherly side of the Sphinx, evidently derived of her prominent breasts. It is noteworthy that feminine symbols, which almost always refer exclusively to affection and compassion, are used in the Sphinx, an opposite symbol of wrath. It is possible, as Cirlot alludes, that such symbols are used to dramatise the underlying symbolism by using a misleading physical appearance.

From her slow rise to power from ancient Egyptian myth to Greek legend and today's colloquial awareness, the Sphinx has become the visual embodiment of deceit, wrath, enigma, and intelligence. Her death is a memory of triumph over animal rage. But that memory is a fallacy that haunts the mind. Human triumph did not end the symptom of animalism, nor the malignance of intelligence. It ended only the visual depiction of a reality to which humankind is forever victim, its own collective mind. The brilliance of the Sphinx is thus, to deceive more in fake demise than when she lived.

Works Cited

Boardman, John. Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1975.

Britannica, Encyclopaedia. "Sphinx." Encyclopaedia Britannica: 200th Anniversary Edition. Vol. 21. USA: William Benton, 1969.

Encarta Encyclopedia. "Oedipus." The Encarta Encyclopedia . Online the Microsoft 2005. Http://

Cowdrey, Albert E. "The Name of the Sphinx." Fantasy and Science Fiction. Vol. 107, Issue 6 (December, 2004): 100-120.

Cirlot, JE A Dictionary of Symbols. Great Britain: Redwood Books, Towbridge, Wiltshire, 1971.

Hajar, Rachel. "Culture: Folk Wisdom of the Sphinx." World & I. Vol. 14, Issue 2 (February, 1999): 228.

Older, Steven. Symbolism: A Comprehensive Dictionary. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1986.

Soans, Catherine, and Alan Spooner, eds. "Sphinx." Oxford Dictionary Thesaurus. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2001.

Scafella, Frank A. "The Sphinx." Mythical and fabulous creatures: a source book and research guide. Ed. Malcolm South. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1987.

Suhr, Elmer G. "The Sphinx." Folklore. Vol. 81, No. 2 (Summer, 1970): 97-111.

Source by Michael Brulotte

Python Training Course – How to Choose One

If you’re looking for a Python training course, the choices can seem bewildering and overwhelming. There are actually sites on the web that claim they can teach you Python in less than half an hour! That’s nonsense, of course. But you’d be surprised how many people fall for that sort of advertising tactic. (Don’t be one of them.)

On the other hand, there are also three day boot camps which cost a thousand dollars and up (plus hundreds of dollars in plane fare, hotel and dining costs). These are legitimate, and many of them offer excellent training, but for most people they’re not really the best choice. These boot camp style events are best if you a) already have quite a bit of experience in programming other computer languages and b) need to learn Python in a hurry for a work assignment. In fact, it’s likely that most of the people attending these boot camps aren’t paying their own tuition – their employers are paying for them to attend.

But what if you’re a complete newbie with Python? What if you want to learn this versatile and cutting edge language but you don’t have any experience in programming, let alone a couple thousand dollars to spend on a boot camp? Are there any Python training courses that are suitable for you? Yes, there are! Some are better than others, of course. Here are some tips to help you choose a good Python training course or book: Make sure it’s really suited for true beginners – many books and courses use the word “beginners” very loosely. They may be assuming you have a little bit of experience with Python, just not advanced knowledge of the language. You’ve got to double check that before purchasing. Make sure the lessons are short and easy to digest, so that you can proceed rapidly, but without getting overwhelmed. Price is another important consideration. You shouldn’t pay more than $100 for a beginner’s Python course. Some companies charge more, because Python training is such a hot market right now, but you can find a great beginner’s course in Python for well under $100.

Source by Ryan Gold

30 Points, How Science Has Changed Our Lives

If we look life 100 years ago, and compare that with the today’s life, we will notice that Science has dramatically changed human life. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the effect of Science on human life rapidly changed. Today, science has a profound effect on the way we live, largely through technology, the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

Some forms of scientific inventions have changed our lives entirely. For example the refrigerator has played a major role in maintaining public health ever since its invention. The first automobile, dating from the 1880s, made use of many advances in physics, mathematics and engineering; the first electronic computers emerged in the 1940s from simultaneous advances in electronics, physics and mathematics. Today we have extra high- speed super computers with 100 % accuracy.

Science has enormous influence on our lives. It provides the basis of much of modern technology – the tools, materials, techniques, and sources of power that make our lives and work easier. The discoveries of scientists also help to shape our views about ourselves and our place in the universe.

Research in food technology has created new ways of preserving and flavoring what we eat. Research in industrial chemistry has created a vast range of plastics and other synthetic materials, which have thousands of uses in the home and in industry. Synthetic materials are easily formed into complex shapes and can be used to make machines, electrical, and automotive parts, scientific, technical and industrial instruments, decorative objects, containers, packing materials and many other items.

1: The use of science in daily life has helped us a good deal in solving problems, dealing with the maintenance of health, production and preservation of food, construction of houses and providing communication and trans-portational (related to transport) facilities. With the help of Science we have controlled epidemics and much other kind of diseases. Now we know the basic structure of DNA and Genetic Engineering is conducting research to find out the right and correct Gene Therapy to overcome all the diseases.

2: Science has changed the people and their living, life style, food habits, sleeping arrangements, earning methods, the way of communication between people and recreational activities. All kinds of music systems, computer games, electronic video games, DVDs, cinema entertainment and communication have been brought to our door with the help of Science. The life of man was very different from what it used to be 100 years back. Science has given ears to the deaf, eyes to the blind and limbs to the crippled. Science has adequately, energetically and productively advanced, changed, civilized, enhanced and progressed human life. Science has brought sophistication to human life.

In short science has changed, improved, enhanced, modified and refined human life in all ways.

3: Today with the help of Science we can explain what was strange and mysterious for the people of the past. The Science of Genetics opening new doors of understanding the human gene and cell.

4: Now human beings have become more critical and less fearful than our fore-fathers and ancestors.

5: Two hundred years ago death rate among children was very high. In those days seven out of eight babies died before their first birthday. Now with the help of vaccines, medications and proper health care system life expectancy has improved. Now people live longer and safe lives as compared to 200 years ago. Biochemical research is responsible for the antibiotics and vaccinations that protect us from infectious diseases, and for a wide range of other drugs used to defeat specific health problems. As a result, the majority of people on the planet now live longer and healthier lives than ever before.

6: After that and up to the age of 12 one used to fall in a prey to diseases like small pox, measles, whooping- cough, scarlet fever and diphtheria. Now Science has defeated these diseases.

7: At a later stage again one was under constant threat of yellow fever, malaria, typhus, cholera, typhoid and influenza. Today we have vaccines and medical aid to cope with these health problems. Further research is underway to find out the causes and treatment of these and other diseases.

8: From one person the disease used to spread among the other people. It is called Epidemics. Now with the help of Vaccines and Medications we have defeated these diseases. But still Science has to do more research and has to fight with other arenas of diseases.

9: Life was uncertain. It was rare to see to somebody thirty years old because due to diseases many people died earlier than the age of thirty. These conditions were prevailing just a short while ago.

10: In everyday life, we have to communicate with different friends and relatives, various official people and for general purposes. And many people to be contacted can be at very far off distances. However, time and distance both have been conquered by Science. Whether we want to communicate or travel, both are possible quickly, briskly and expeditiously.

11: These days there are very little chances of babies catching diseases, because births normally take place in hospitals under the supervision of a team of specialist doctors. Science has invented vaccines for young babies to protect them against future life illnesses.

12: Young people are also given medical treatment in time and these days the man lives for about seventy years.

13: Science and scientific methods have helped in finding out the cause of disease and its prevention.

14: Sanitary condition in the past was deplorable. Now we have better sanitary systems.

15: The city streets were unpaved; there was no proper drainage system. Garbage and other refuse was seen everywhere. Pigs were seen wandering through the streets. People got water from filthy wells. Now filtered mineral water is available to overcome diseases. Solid waste management is not a problem now a days, it is the duty of the city municipal committees to manage and dump it with the latest machinery and equipments

16: Now all these defects have gone. There is cleanliness everywhere. It is illegal to throw garbage into the streets. There is a proper drainage system and new and improved methods for solid waste management as it has been told earlier. There are separate departments that bother about sanitary condition of the towns.

17: A century ago for house hold purposes water was carried from wells outside in buckets. It sometimes proved injurious to human health. Moreover, it was insufficient for the daily needs. But now water filters have become a thing of common usage.

18: Now there is sufficient supply of water in cities. For example Los Angeles gets water through pipes from Colorado River, which is 340 miles away. This water is supplied to Los Angeles after the proper water filtration process.

19: With the help of science there is change in our food also. We get varieties of food. In the past, food could not be preserved. But now the quick freezing methods have made possible preservation possible. Due to modern technologies like dehydration and sterilization there is no chance of food poisoning. We get all kinds of fruits, meats and vegetables. Even those fruits and vegetables which are out of season.

20: Not only our eating habits are changed, but also there are improvements in our houses. Means of transport has also undergone a big improvement and change.

21: Science has also changed our attitudes. Superstitions have been discarded, because there is no scientific basis for them. Now people do not fear cloud thunders.

22: Now people no more believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits.

23: Astrology and fortune- telling have lost popularity as compared to 100 years ago. Nobody now fears black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13. Because science has proved that these kinds of fears are un-scientific and illogical.

24: Science has changed the longstanding false notions of the people, which are not supported by Scientific Facts.

25: Research in the field of science and technology has made people open-minded and cosmopolitan, because the Scientist does not like to travel on the beaten track and he always tries to find out new things, new explorations, new discoveries and new inventions.

26: Science has also brought medical equipments that help to save human life. The kidney dialysis machine facilitates many people to survive kidney diseases that would once have proved fatal, and artificial valves allow sufferers of coronary heart disease to return to active living. Since the 1980s, lasers have been used in the treatment of painful kidney stones. Lasers are used when kidney stones fail to pass through the body after several days, it provides a quick and low-pain way to break up the stone and allow the stones to be easily passed through the body. This technique is called Lithotripsy.

27: Arthroscopic surgery is a technique using fiber optics to probe complex joints such as knee, shoulder, ankle and wrist to evaluate injury. It is a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an “arthroscopy” while making repairs through a small incision.

28: 200 years ago nobody even knows that human body parts can be replaced or transplanted. Now kidney transplant is widely used to save human lives around the globe. Dr. Christian Bernard first of all invented the method of heart transplant. Eye transplant techniques are used in these days to see again this beautiful world, for those who have lost their eyes. These all are the blessings of Science.

29: Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) waves are allocated for variety of uses, including television, cellular phones, public safety radios, business radios, military aircraft communications, military radar, cordless phones, baby monitors, etc. So, whether someone is watching over-the-air TV, talking on cell phone, having police/fire/ambulance dispatched to an emergency they are experiencing, or having national airspace protected by military aircraft, they all are benefitting from the science that has allowed the use of UHF waves. Even it is used to treat some illnesses.

30: For communication, now we have fixed wire telephones, moveable wireless phone sets, cordless phones, mobile phones, wireless, video conferencing, Internet, Broad Band Internet, E-mail, Social Networks, Satellite Communication and many other ways to communicate. These all are blessings of Science. Today we are better aware of what is happening around the globe due to satellite television channels. The benign and benefits of science for human life are endless.

Source by Rizwan Younus

Television – An Idiot Box Or a Harmful Box?

Television is the greatest wonder that science has given to us. It is only because of this device that we can watch interesting programmes like songs, movies, plays, serials, dramas and series sitting at home on our couch. It is not only used for entertainment purposes but also for education.

Presently there are many programmes on the television where we could get to know about many different things or aspects that are related to us through documentaries. They are very informative and through these documentaries you can learn about nature, wildlife, histories of our civilization and many other things. Through television we can get a direct knowledge of any thing and it helps us learn things as we can watch the unknown with our own eyes.

Television watching is the greatest recreation of all and we can watch a lot without getting bored. It also gives us the opportunity to watch things “Exclusively Live” which is happening all over the world. It includes live action from the sporting world or any other happenings in the news channels. The world becomes very small and closely connected to us by the help of this device. It is a powerful medium of mass education and it also helps to raise public opinion. Like a pen, it is a mightier medium.

However, after so many wonders that are made possible by this very device, it is still known as Idiot a box by some people. There are both advantages and disadvantages attached to it.

Television watching is just like an addiction and it compels people to watch it and it is also accompanied by another vices including ignoring duties. One has to sit idly in front of the “idiot box”, that is, the television while watching it. Excessive television watching also disables the learning ability of students, particularly, if the person is very young. A person becomes more prone to audio visual learning techniques and it decreases the capability of the person to acquire knowledge by merely reading.

Young people are generally very fond of action movies and ghost stories and watching these things on television makes them more gullible and vulnerable. They start believing in those unreal objects more than they believe things that are happening in their real world. Action movies can badly affect the tender minds and they become more prone to violence and this leads to their inclination towards violence which may led to many troubles when they become grown up human beings. Also it would be very bad if these young people get exposed to adult material when they are still young.

Excessive television watching is also bad for the eyes and it may even lead to blindness in the future. Many students need spectacles from a very tender age, it is sometimes also a result of television viewing.

Source by David A Kay

How Designing Is Considered As the Most Important Factor in Web Development

The designing of a website is certainly an art. It is the philosophy that attractive websites have the potential to generate online leads. Your website is like your office. It should be designed in the attractive designs and must contain attractive colour combinations. The philosophy suggests that everyone loves to stay at that place where which provides comfort to eyes and mind. The same thing is true for websites. The better it looks, the more will be the chances of the generation of revenue through online leads.

What designer should keep in mind while designing a website? Picking up of the template is an important task. The designers should opt the template which perfectly matches the requirement of the clients. Whether you are using PHP, Joomla, WordPress or any other platform, it is mandatory to pick the template based on the industry of the client. Millions of free templates are available at free of cost. Some of the most popular industries are education, hotel, tour and travel, e-commerce, etc. The designers should keep the industry of the client in mind while opting for the template.

The most important part of any website is its homepage. It is necessary to design this page in the most attractive forms of designs. The things which can be used for this purpose are banners, images, infographics, headlines, text content, etc. These things help in making this web page more appealing and attractive.

Another job for the designer is to select the best color combination while designing the web page. The selection of the colors should be based on the nature of business of the client. If you are designing e-commerce website for apparel, then bright colour combination is definitely a perfect choice.

What other things designer should keep in their mind? It is necessary to provide a proper navigation so that visitors should move from one web page to another. If the visitors don’t find proper navigation, then they will navigate to some other website. So, proper linking should be provided in order to provide full convenience to the visitors. Some other features which are mandatory in a website are search bar option, filter option, etc.

The designers should also put a check on the text style, font size and color combinations in order to make the website more appealing and attractive.

These are certain features which are mandatory for an interactive website. The designers should try to put their best efforts in powering website with creativity. They should use plugins like page builder to create amazing websites.

Source by Rahul Ranjan Singh

Spa Etiquette – How to Act and What to Expect at a Day Spa

Is this your first time at a day spa? You are probably apprehensive about the new experience and nervous because you don’t know what to expect or are unfamiliar with the etiquette practices. Here are few hints to help you fit in at the spa and minimize stress through achieving greater relaxation, which is the whole mission of a day spa.

Arrive on Time

It is important that you arrive at least 15 minutes early to your appointment, allowing time to fill out any required paperwork and change your clothing. You may even want to come earlier and take advantage of the spa’s sauna or steam room in an effort to further unwind.

When scheduling your appointment make sure you give yourself a heavy cushion of time between your spa appointment and other engagements on your schedule. This is important because feeling stressed about time may negate the calming effect of your massage. If for some reason you cannot make your appointment, call the day spa at least 24 hours prior to your appointment. This is common courtesy as well as requirement of many spas in order to avoid a cancellation fee.

Maintain Silence

When you arrive, immediately turn off your cell phone to maintain a quiet and calm atmosphere. Also, be sure to speak softly, as you would in a library. You are the not the only one trying to relax at the day spa so keep all social conversation at a low volume and do not bring children.


Most people are most apprehensive about this aspect of a day spa. It is customary to undress completely for massages, this includes jewelry. Towels and robes are provided by most day spas and should be used while walking from room to room. The therapist will give you instructions and then leave the room while you lie on the table and drape the cloth over your body.

During the treatment, your private parts remain covered at all times. If disrobing makes you uncomfortable, feel free to wear a swim suit or leave your underwear on. Also, if you prefer a same-sex therapist, mention that when scheduling your appointment.

Give the Therapist Feedback

During your massage communicate with your therapist. If you desire a change in pressure, music, room temperature, or talking, tell them. They want to make you comfortable and will follow your lead. Also make sure to tell them of any problem areas and if you experience any pain.

Be respectful of the schedule

Following a massage, the therapist will tell you to take your time getting up to avoid getting dizzy or light headed. They will leave you alone in the room, but this is not the time to take a nap. An appropriate time to lie on the table before getting up is 5-10 minutes.

Do not take longer than this, as the room must be sanitized and prepared for the next scheduled patient. If you feel you need more relaxation time, most day spas provide a relaxation room for this very purpose. Day spas do not intend to rush anyone, but still have schedules to follow.


It is customary and polite to tip the therapist that provided you your treatment. This is done when checking out and paying for the procedure rather than just handed to the therapist. Like restaurants, the tip should be at least 15-20% of the procedure price.

If you are still nervous about the whole experience, remember to tell the staff that it is your first time throughout the entire visit. This will ensure that they give you more detailed instructions and will do everything they can to make your trip to the day spa as positive and relaxing as possible.

Source by Abigail Aaronson

Publishing Poetry in Newspapers: Where to Submit

According to Dana Gioia, Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, “Daily newspapers no longer review poetry. There is, in fact, little coverage of poetry or poets in the general press”. (Can Poetry Matter, Dana Gioia, 1991).

John Timpane, Philadelphia Inquirer Commentary page editor, adds: “Today, in my opinion, most newspaper people are afraid of poetry. They’re afraid readers won’t understand it, especially poetry they (these newspaper people) find “hard” or “experimental.” It amounts to a fear of the verbal. (Kelly Writers House, 1999).

One could argue Gioia and Timpane’s claims today, as print media seemingly loses ground, with technological advancements in communications, and as the art of poetry and its society becomes increasingly associated with academia, thereby making it less user-friendly to the general public.

However, there is, even today, life in the press. This article addresses the newspapers that currently

accept poetry from the people; listed below are the following newspapers in the United States, (compiled by Melanie Simms) that presently accept poetry submissions.

(If anyone has information on additional listings, please e-mail them to Melanie Simms at or contact her at her website at []).

Current List of Newspapers that Publish Poetry:

Philadelphia Inquirer: Contact: John Timpane at

The York Daily Record: Contact: Bill Diskin:

The Oregonian: Ask for the Poetry Editor or call: 503-221-8100

The Santa Cruz Sentinel: Contact: 831-423-4242 and ask for the Poetry Editor

The Pittsburgh Post Gazette: Contact: 412-263-1100 and ask for the Poetry Editor

The Christian Science Monitor: Contact: 617-450-2000 and ask for the Poetry Editor

Clearly this current list is small (albeit still in development) which only forwards the concerns of the American public that “poetry in the newspapers” is a dying breed, but thanks to the “die-hard” efforts of these remaining voices in today’s newspapers, America still has hope to see the art rekindled.

Every poet and citizen who appreciates the art has an opportunity and obligation as well to assist. The newspapers depend upon its readers. Share your voices of concern so that the press realizes that Dana Gioia, John Timpane and your humble author are not alone in their desire to see poetry in the news again. You can do so by contacting your local poetry editor and requesting a poetry article be developed, or, if you’re creatively (and financially inclined) start a poetry column of your own from your own small newspaper press.

Let the voice of the people be heard in the art of poetry and thrive once again in the newspapers!

Source by Melanie Simms

Septic Tanks and Cistern Tanks – What’s The Difference?

Are you confused about what a Below Ground Septic and Cistern Tank is? Let us help clarify what the two are and some of the most frequent questions that are asked about them.

Cistern Tanks These tanks are designed for below ground storage of potable (drinking) water. The resins used are FDA approved for contact with products intended for human consumption, septic tanks are not. They are heavier duty than septic tanks as well, meaning they can be routinely filled and emptied without worrying about sidewall integrity. Cisterns can also catch and store rainwater.

Below Ground Septic Tanks These tanks are designed for human waste, both black water and gray water. Normally, a bio-additive is introduced into the tank that consumes the waste and the by-product is inert. French drains (pipes with holes in them) are attached to the tank and the clean inert fluid is discharged over a large surface area and absorbed by the soil. The nutrients in the discharge are actually beneficial to the plant life in the area. They are available as one and two-compartment models. Peabody Engineering recommends that you check with your individual state regulations to see which model works for your area. These tanks that are generally 750 gallons or larger are usually pre-plumbed.

Major Differences Between Septic And Cistern Septic tanks are designed to be full at all times. Cistern tanks can be used as septic tanks, but septic tanks should NOT be used as cistern tanks.

Can I Use My Septic Or Cistern Above Ground? No. Below-ground tanks are only designed for direct burial applications. There are other tank options available if you require an above ground tank, including holding tanks designed to slide under mobile office trailers.

How Deep Can These Tanks Be Buried? Peabody Engineering recommends you bury them not more than 24″ deep. Common manhole extensions are 15″ and 24″ in lengths to allow for access to your tank buried below grade without having to dig a hole in the ground to get to it.

Do I Have To Fill The Tank With Water During Burial? With standard duty septic tanks (yellow), the answer is yes. This helps stabilize the tank and keeps it from shifting during backfill and equalizes the pressure inside and outside the tank so it does not become deformed during installation. Filling a Bruiser (a heavier weight of a septic tank) or cistern with water while backfilling is recommended but not required.

How Big Of A Septic Or Cistern Tank Do I Need For My House? Proper sizing of a septic or a cistern tank depends upon a number of factors. For septic tanks, average sewage flow is the most important consideration. Most states require a minimum septic capacity of 1000 gallons. For cistern tank sizing, you need to determine your home water use. A good website to research what size is best for you can be found at For cistern tank sizing, consider the home water use calculator at

What Septic And Cistern Tanks Are Legal In My State/Province? The tanks have been approved from coast to coast and even in some international locations.

    Ideal For:

    • Rural Locations Vacation Homes
    • Campgrounds
    • Resorts
    • Construction Sites.

    The cistern tanks are FDA approved for the safe storage of Potable water and will not impart a taste or odor to your water storage. They are compliant with FDA regulation 21CFR 177.150(c) 3.1 and 3.2. The Septic tanks are IAPMO and CSA Approved. If you require assistance in finding out which tank is approved for your state Peabody Engineering has a list of these tank model numbers and we would gladly assist you with that information.

    We have more information on Below Ground Septic and Cistern Tanks if you would like further help.

    Source by Mark Peabody

Choosing A Preparatory Course In Medicine

Preparatory courses usually are college degrees that are taken prior to the medicine courses from medical colleges and universities. The number of years ranges from two to four years depending on the requirements stated by governing laws per country that confers an individual of a Bachelor’s degree.

Preparatory courses are pre-requisites to a course in the field of medicine to equip students with general knowledge as well as assess IQ and their overall academic performances that gauge them whether or not they are capable of pursuing another step of a higher level of education. Most of these courses are science in nature although a course in other entirely different field such as in the Arts is allowed depending on every country as long as students pass the entrance exams or qualify the general admission examinations for medicine known as GMAT or NMAT, depending on every country.

A Bachelor’s Degree in Science definitely opens up to larger career possibilities as science courses are becoming valuable and diverse. One of the courses that students pursue in preparation for medicine is a degree in Biology. As medicine is composed of many science-related subjects, a course in biology has initially prepared students and given them a better and profoundly larger and wider scope of understanding of the different science subjects in medicine. In biology, students have already been exposed to the human anatomy and physiology, a field which is predominant to medicine course as medical students will be dealing their entire medicine career with the human body and its diseases.

Another well-preferred preparatory course is Bachelor of Science in Nursing. With such degree, a graduate nurse, aside from having finished the basic science subjects has already been oriented to the basic internal activities of a hospital through the clinical exposure which is an advantage and an edge over other graduates of non-nursing courses. Nurses spent most of their time attending to the sick and answer holistically to the ill in a general aspect guided by their own distinct and unique nursing diagnosis. Nurses do not treat disease like doctors however they act and provide care in response to individual problems done in the nursing way and in an individualized manner.

Another preferred course is Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. Graduates of such course have been well-versed with the different causative agents of diseases, its mode of transmission and medication for which type of drugs that such microorganism are highly susceptible or resistant that will effectively and immediately curtail the growth of the causative agents.

Source by Greg Pierce

How to Become a CCIE With Little or No Experience in Cisco

So you want to become one of the elite CCIEs (Cisco Certified Internetwork Engineer). This certification is highly reputed worldwide and there are only approximately 100,000 CCIEs in the world. I have known people with just a CCIE in California, USA start at an annual salary of $80,000 a year with no experience. CCIEs with up to ten years of experience earn approximately $200,000 or more a year. The certification is considered a professional degree in networks and it is a ticket to a bright future in high-paying career. The good news is, you do not need a college degree to become a CCIE, and the rewards are like having a Computer Science degree from one of the elite schools in the USA.

Getting started can be overwhelming, but going over the CCIE blueprint that Cisco offers online will answer all of your questions. The blueprint provides a list of topics to study and gives you suggested books to read. You will get a complete list of Cisco materials to study and a list of Cisco equipment they use to study for the lab.

Let’s get started on becoming a CCIE with little or no experience. The very first step is to get your Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNA certification test number 640-802. This is the first prerequisite before you can take the CCIE lab test. I recommend reading the Cisco Certified Network Associate study guide by Todd Lammle and purchase the CCIE Lab workbooks from I have used these books in the past with much success. You will also need to purchase a CCNA simulator to practice for the test and some CCNA and CCIE written brain dumps; you can find these by searching online. CCIE written test number 350-001 is the final step before taking the lab and there are lots of brain dumps on line to help you pass this test in a very short time.

Since you are on the great adventure of obtaining the elite CCIE, you should say goodbye to your social life and complete the CCNA test within a week and the CCIE written test the second week. This is what Cisco training partners teach in the one week training class and this is what I did to pass the test.

After the first step, you should have a good grasp on understanding Cisco equipment and all those special IT protocols you have to know to be able to pass the CCIE test. The next step is to focus on the CCIE lab test by reading the CCIE blueprint that is located on the Cisco web site. By now you know the lab test is eight hours long and all hands on. The only way you are going to pass this lab with little or no experience is to build your own home lab. If you are on a tight budget, then my recommendation is a minimum of 5 routers and 1 switch. The cheapest you can go is the Cisco 2610 series hardware running native IOS firewall. I have seen Cisco 2610 on eBay priced less than $200. You can save a lot of money by not buying routers with Fast Ethernet connections or interfaces, just stay with the 2610 series.

OK, all of your equipment is in place, and all you have to do is start practicing for the lab. I recommend the lab workbooks from Ipexpert. I have found these workbooks easy to understand and everything they teach pretty much follows what is going to be on the actual CCIE lab test. Obviously, when you practice with your workbooks, you must understand why you are configuring the equipment this way. I have found it helpful to join a couple of CCIE communities. There are a lot of CCIE candidates out there and you can learn to study together. I have found most of my questions and answers from these communities. Once you complete all workbooks from Ipexpert, you pretty much just have to work on your speed when you are configuring your routers. Get use to the lab flow and try to increase your speed, practice this until you can complete all workbooks in less than four hours. Once you accomplish this then you are ready for the lab. Good luck, be patient, and you will be one of the elite CCIEs.

Source by AJ Brantley