History of Strength and Conditioning Science

Early records of strength training date back to 3600 BC when Chinese emperors made their subjects exercise daily (Webster 1976). During the Chou Dynasty subjects were required to pass weight- lifting tests before entering the military. There is large amount of evidence that indicates weight training was part of life in ancient Greece and India. In fact, the Greeks built numerous sculptures of people lifting stone weights.

Numerous systems of training have been proposed over the years. The accumulation of experience and different philosophies has led us to the current training methods utilized today. Keep in mind; many authorities have varied greatly from the original purpose of strength and conditioning. Hard work and dedication formed the foundation of earlier training methods. Today the opposite has occurred in numerous settings as easy work and quick fixes form the foundation of most people's regimens.

During the 16th century in Europe books on weight training began to surface. Sir Thomas Elyot's book on the topic was published in England in 1531. Joachim Camerius, a lecturer at Leipzig University, wrote several books in 1544 recommending that weight training should be a key activity offered in the model school. John Paugh published a book in 1728 titled A Physiological, Theoretic and Practical Treatise on the Utility of Muscular Exercise for Restoring the Power to the limbs, which pointed out the benefits offered by weight training for rehab purposes. In the 1860's, Archibald Maclaren, devised the first formal system of physical training with dumbbells and barbells for the British Army.

The showmen and strongman entertainers of the 19th Century heavily contributed to methods used today in the fitness and Sports Conditioning industry. From extensive research iron game historian David Webster credits Italian circus and fairground performer, Felice Napoli as the one who popularized strongman performances on an international scale. Disciples of Napoli include Professor Attila (Louis Durlacher) and Eugen Sandow (Frederick Muller). Attila became well known and he attracted some of the world's most well known physical culturists and many rulers of Europe. His list of students included King George of Greece, King Edward of England, Crown Prince Frederick who became King Haakon of Norway, the six children of King Christian of Denmark, the Queen Mother Alexandra of England, Princess Dagmar (Empress of Russia and mother of Tsar Nicholas), and the Duchess of Cumberland.

At the time training the wealthy was a much respected occupation. We have what we call personal trainers today. The current protocols used by the majority of today's trainers are a far cry from the original teachings and benefits provided by trainers. The fame and notoriety of trainers of those days was a result of the public displays of extraordinary physical feats. These events were often attended by royalty and were highly acclaimed for their promotion of physical well-being.

Eugen Sandow, born in Koningsberg in East Russia in 1867, was recruited for his teachings by presidents and rulers from around the world. Nine kings and queens and many princes of Europe, as well as US presidents William Taft and Woodrow Wilson endorsed Sandow's book Life is Movement. Sandow was a successful strongman as well as a promoter of formal fitness and health management. He emphasized that physical education and sport should be an integral part of the school system. He also toured the world lecturing and promoting physical culture as a means of improving the quality of life.

Most authorities recognize Sandow, as one of the most important figures in the history of fitness, with the history of his work revealing that the modern phenomenon of science based fitness training is not a novel invention. Sandow promoted the importance of strength and skill as being the cornerstone of fitness. A half a century later Dr Kenneth Cooper proposed that being fit was primarily dependent on aerobic conditioning. Approximately 25 years later the important role of strength training has once again been recognized by the academia.

In Russia during the same period Vladislav Krayevsky founded the St Petersburg Amateur Weightlifting Society (1885). Many respected scientists, athletes; artists became his students, including famous strongman George Hackenschmidt, who credited Krayevsky for teaching him all he knew. Hackenschmidt mentioned in his book The Way To Live that some of the world's strongest men of the era, including Sandow were trained using Krayevsky's system.

Krayevsky's work and the popularity of his students had a major effect on weightlifting in Russia. Not only was he a renowned teacher, but he also achieved significant numbers in barbell lifts himself. He was the president of the jury at the first world championships in Vienna in 1898.

Krayevsky wrote two of his fundamental works during the period of 1896-1899. The writings were titled The Catechism of Health-Rules for Athletes and The Development of Physical Strength with Kettlebells and without Kettlebells. The Catechism of Health-Rules for Athletes was sent to press December 9th 1899, but was never published and is now preserved in manuscript form. His other book was published in 1900 and reprinted three times (1902, 1909, 1916) after his death (1901).

Krayevsky was well studied on the history of physical culture and all forms of gymnastics. He was knowledgeable about Swedish gymnastics and noted its therapeutic benefits, but his concern with the lack of scientific data of the Swedish system led him to recruit experimentalists to research it.

Many of Krayevsky's recommendations are still used today. His recommendations include medical control of an athlete's health, consistent training and varying load patterns, full spectrum physical development, psychological development and avoidance of smoking and alcohol.

The early strength pioneers developed numerous devices in regards to strength training including cable machines, kettlebells, barbells, dumbbells, odd-shaped bars, thick grip bars, weighted boots, isolation machines and various throwing devices. Yet 50 years later there are numerous people who claim to have invented this machinery. In today's industry there are many systems and people promoting their new systems, which are not really new at all.

The development of different scientific and educational cultures split the West and East as their promotion of physical activity was vaguely different. During the years following the World Wars Russia and Europe still continued to promote various elements of physical strength, power and skill while the West primarily promoted aerobics. Kenneth Cooper's book Aerobics was popular at the time as well as Swedish endurance exercise research. According to Cooper and the Swedish researchers cardiac and general health depended primarily on prolonged endurance work. Supporters of the endurance doctrine heavily protested strength training. Cooper told the world strength training promoted a beautiful body but did nothing for health.

During the same period that the aerobics craze was running wild in the West Russians and Eastern Europeans accumulated extensive international information on strength and sports training while developing comprehensive educational programs to promote their findings. Most schools offered weightlifting and within a few decades there were approximately 1 million weightlifters in the USSR. Strength training became a key element in all sports training programs in the USSR while the attitude in the West was that weight training would slow athletes down and limit their range of motion. Consequently Russia dominated the Olympic Games, especially in Olympic Weightlifting, at the same time the aerobic doctrine became gospel in the West.

The Russian dominance has often been attributed to the use of anabolic-androgenic drugs, but the sporting use of these drugs was actually introduced in by the West first. It is probably more accurate to say that the Eastern nations dominated due to their special strength science and understanding of comprehensive sports conditioning. On the topic of drug usage no one uses more drugs than Pro bodybuilders, which are predominantly Americans.

In the West today the majority of gyms, trainers, academia and coaches are still ill informed when it comes to fitness and Sports Conditioning. The aerobic endurance crazes still dominates in most cases, yet this makes up a minor portion of fitness. All one needs to do is study the science and abundant evidence that supports the numerous health and fitness benefits of a proper strength-training program to realize its importance.


Siff, MC (2000) Supertraining. Mel Siff.

Copyright 2005 Jamie Hale

Source by Jamie Hale

Types of Kick Drum Samples

There are many different types of kick drum samples available for music producers today. Beat making is such an involved activity that having to use the same samples over and over can really kill your creativity. This is especially true with kick drum sounds as these are an elemental ingredient to just about every rhythm and blues, hip hop, rap, pop and rock song on the charts and underground today.

A kick drum sample has a few phases, the first being the start or attack. If the attack is very strong, you will be able to hear the introduction of the kick through many other instruments and sound layers, and if it is not that strong, you will still feel it but not be made aware to its presence immediately every time. Rap music producers (and others, too) often use compressor tools to really spike up the start of kick and snare drums, and this can be a powerful choice for drum-centric tracks.

The sustained sound of the kick is very different depending on the type of sound that is chosen. One of the more famous sustains can be found in the sounds made by the famous TR-808 sampler and synthesizer by Roland. It has a very long booming sound that degrades in volume with time and yet keeps everything moving. The TR-808 actually has kicks of varying lengths for different applications, too.

Adjusting the volume envelope of a kick drum sample is very easy with the right tools. Most samplers will include an envelope modifier for the volume or can be modified to do this very easily. If your drum sampler or sequencer does not permit this, look for some free tools that will help you; there are literally thousands of free virtual sound generators and effects plug-ins available on the internet for free personal use.

If you still don’t want to use an envelope to modify the volume, it’s very easy to do it with an audio editor. Just select the part of the drum sample wave that fades out or stops (the end of it) and trim to your liking. To blend everything in after a crop, use a fade on the last few milliseconds to ensure that the drum samples are free of clipping.

Lastly, you should know that different programs include different drum samples. The libraries that ship with Reason and FL Studio, for example, are vastly different. They are both good, but if you find yourself making beats with the same drum samples over and over, look for some expansion packs or third party sounds to expand your choice, or modify the samples yourself if you have the time and skill.

Source by John Gellei

Teaching Kids About Mortgage Loans

Let’s face it our schools are not teaching our kids about personal finance. It is important that you teach the skills to your children at home so they can make informed financial decisions. One way you can do this is by taking real-life examples from your personal finances and explaining how they work to your children. Most parents have mortgage loans which they must pay each month. Showing your children how these work can be a great learning tool.

First they must understand the relationship between interest and principle and how this affects monthly payments. I suggest getting some type of simplified accounting device such as beans or some other mortar to demonstrate how mortgage loans work by showing how each payment is divided between principal and interest. You can also demonstrate how principal payments have an effect on the total amount of interest due. Also, you can use this to show the very real impact that small changes in interest can have on the total amount due. In this way you can demonstrate that it is important to have lower interest rates and to avoid high interest debt.

There are online calculators which you can also use to show them some real numbers that demonstrate this point clearly. Then you can relate this back to the home which they are living in and explain the benefits of home ownership along with the lesson. In this way they can tie in this simple financial lesson with their everyday life and make it something real and therefore more memorable.

Source by Tuesdee Hasson

The Chicken Mentality Verses the Eagle Mentality

Galatians 5: 1 – It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of slavery.

There is a specific mindset we must have to be successful and walk free as presented in the scripture above. What keeps us ground-bound is our thinking, which I call "chicken mentality". Yet, God desires us to have the "eagle mentality" if we are to soar and be free. We will examine the chicken and the eagle as they relate to how God wants us to see ourselves.

First let me define what I mean by chicken mentality. The chicken is a ground-dwelling bird that lives majority of its life inside of a coop. Therefore the chicken in the coop only knows this limited world. When we have a "chicken mentality" we are no able to think above the "ground" or the coop. In other words, "Chicken mentality" is thinking that is bound up and imprisoned. Now let me define eagle mentality. The eagle is able to soar for great distances for long periods of time. While the chicken's characteristic is changed because of imprisonment, the eagle is known to live longer and strives, never losing its characteristic even in captivity. Hence, to have an "eagle mentality" means you are not confined to conditions, situations, elements or circumstances. You are always an eagle no matter what situation you are in and you are able to soar above it all.

In my study I found some interesting information. Chickens in the wild are particular about which birds they participate with. Furthermore, both the chicken and the rooster play important roles in the family. Remember I said in the wild, once the chicken goes into the coop, the chicken's identity changes. This is what happened to humanity. We were created by God to think and be different, yet when sin entered in; we became marred and were thrust into sins coop. Now we are like the ground-bound chickens that are imprisoned in limited spaces. Are ability to see above the ground is limited and we peck along the ground looking for the crumbs.

Now let's look at some of the characteristics of the chicken in the coop.

The condition of the Coop: Cooped chickens are in captivity. In some coops the chickens are so cramped together that they lose their ability for uniqueness. A chicken in captivity is unable to choose which chicken to associates with and they all become one group that looks like another. The eagle on the other hand is free and able to move as it needs. Even if an eagle finds itself in captivity for any reason it still keeps its identity.

~ The chicken's personality and individuality are lost in the overflowing crowd. – What often happens to those that have "chicken like thinking" is they lose their uniqueness because they are cramped in with other "chicken like thinking" people. We will lose our uniqueness when we allow pressure from others to act alike and think alike to rule our life decisions. God desires that you seek to put on the unique mind of Christ. This way we are able to begin to lift off the ground in our thinking so we can become who God called us to be. The eagle no matter what the situations; free or in captivity never loses its ability to be an eagle.

Consider this: An eagle's instincts are not changed by its circumstances, how do you keep from allowing the situations around you to shift you from what you know is right? An eagle is able to strive even in captivity, how can you strive even in limiting situations? An eagle has a longer life span than a chicken, what steps can you do to ensure a long "spiritual life"?

~ The chicken in the coop sometimes dies from obesity because of the lack of movement. – When you are not "working" out physically you will see the results of that inactivity in your body. You will not feel well. You will not have energy and stamina to accomplish what you need to accomplish. In fact, prolonged inactivity can lead to obesity and early death. Well God does not want us entrapped in a prison that keeps us from working out our "spiritual muscles". He does not want us trapped in a place that keeps us only taking in but never utilizing that which we eat. How many Bible studies must you attend or how many sermons will you hear before using the information to flex your spiritual muscles? What good is it to read all the great literature available to us, yet we are locked in the coop unable to move? The eagle unlike the chicken does not wait for someone else to feed him. He waits for the right wind and then he is able to fly, enabling him the ability to provide for himself. Spiritually speaking, when we are waiting for someone else to feed us and never taking the time to soar on the "wind of the Spirit" we lose the opportunity to feed ourselves on the right kind of food.

In captivity it is clear that the chicken loses its identity, what it was created to be. This reminds me of man's plight. In the book of Genesis, God's Word gives us the account that man was created in the image of God (Genesis 1:27 NIV). Humanity was created and given characteristics that resembled God such as the ability to think and reason, love, and make choices, for example. God gave to Adam and Eve all they needed to be the best parents of humanity. Yet, they took this godly ability to reason and made wrong choices. These decisions caused humanity to lose the freedom they had been given by God. These sinful choices made by man destroyed families (see Genesis 4). Just as the rooster lost its identity in the nuclear family of chickens, so has the father become scarce in the nuclear human family. All these conditions resulted from sinful choices … and into the coop humanity went!

Are you in the coop because of broken relationship with God or because of a chicken-like mentality? The first step to finding the freedom to soar is being in a right relationship with Jesus Christ. Now maybe you are in a right relationship, but you still find yourself ground- bound, what do you do? The first step calls for you to examine yourself. What areas are you limiting God and keeping your focus on the ground verses looking up at the vast possibilities available to you? Are you ready to soar? It calls for you to change your thinking from one that is limited by your surroundings and situations to one that is limitless and full of possibilities. Are you ready for takeoff?

Source by Jewel D Williams

How To Write a Short Story: Seven Hints

There is no one formula for how to write a short story but there are several guidelines that will provide a solid structure to support your creative juices. Here are seven.

HINT ONE: Begin by ‘writing’ your story in one sentence of fewer than 30 words. The subject will usually suggest the main character(s). The predicate will give rise to the action – what will be going on. The object will dictate the story line. When you go back and add a few crucial adjectives and adverbs you see the story blossom before your eyes. Writing the short story is then mostly just a matter of expanding on what you have there.

HINT TWO: When asking any successful author how to write a short story he will very likely suggest that the number of characters be kept to a minimum. If a character isn’t absolutely necessary to the telling of the story, omit it.

HINT THREE: When writing the short story the author has little room for character development. One way to minimize the problem is to select a series of definitive adjectives. Example: “Although for decades Mildred had been a well known old lady in the small hill town of Jasper, she presented herself as an energetic, kind, and ever helpful, smiling presence when she moved into the retirement home.” Not much else will need to be said. In a book, the reader would learn those things by wading through many pages (or even chapters) of examples from which those traits would be extrapolated.

HINT FOUR: In writing the short story there is little room for building a character’s background. In the example above a suggestion about Mildred’s background was presented in the phrase, “Although for decades Mildred had been a well known old lady in the small hill town of Jasper…” Never provide more information than is needed to establish and move the story toward its conclusion.

HINT FIVE: Although not a hard and fast rule in writing the short story, it is generally best to use mostly short, simple sentences. They provide the illusion of more content and a faster pace. Sprinkling the piece with a few long or complex sentences adds variety and ‘texture’. Readers appreciate a bit of variety.

HINT SIX: When writing the short story develop a single point – move toward a single event or outcome. Limiting the number of characters helps accomplish this. There is no room for subplots (which may be considered necessary for providing flavor and maintaining interest in books).

HINT SEVEN: Most books about how to write the short story will suggest that the story should be tied up (the outcome revealed) within the last few sentences. So, when writing the short story don’t linger after the point of the story has been made and never repeat it in a different way thinking that will assure clarity. Make it clear the first time.

Source by Tom D Gnagey

What to Look For in a Radiology School

Beginning the task of seeking for radiology schools can seem daunting and can be a confusing process for those who don’t already know someone who has been through the process. You’ve got to understand all about accreditation, certification, licensing, and what type of job a certain degree level will get you. Hopefully, this article will serve to give you some ground rules when searching for radiology schools and sifting through the programs available.


The radiology community looks to an accrediting body called JRCERT, which stands for Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. When you are considering applying to radiology schools, be sure to check with the JRCERT web site to be sure they are an accredited institution. If they are not accredited through JRCERT and the state you will be living and working in is one of the few that doesn’t have certification or licensing standards, you may be able to get away with attending a school that is accredited through some other means; however, it is important that you do due diligence by contacting your state’s radiologic society or a trustworthy source to determine if the program you complete will get you the job you are seeking. It is always recommended that you look through job postings in your area and look for the trends in terms of what their requirements are.

Certification & Licensing Standards

Most radiology students in the United States will need to get both certified and licensed in order to a competitive job candidate for positions as a Radiologic Technologist. If you are only looking for limited licensure, you will want to check with your state’s regulatory body to find out what their standards are; however, it is recommended that you find a school that is acceptable to both JRCERT and ARRT. The ARRT stands for American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and it is the governing body that awards national certification as a Rad Tech. In order to become certified you will need to complete a radiology degree (certificate, associates, or bachelors) from an approved institution, then pass a test administered by the ARRT. The good news is that almost all approved radiology schools will sufficiently prepare you for this exam. Lastly, you will need to file for licensing through your state. Since each states requirements can differ, you will want to visit their web site and contact them with any questions you have.

Characteristics of a Quality Radiology School

Take your time learning about your options and don’t hesitate to request information from multiple schools and talk with school representatives. Does the school use the term “limited scope” or “technician” when it explains the types of jobs it will prepare you for? If so, you will want to dig deeper because it may not be a program that is approved with JRCERT or that will prepare you for certification with the ARRT. If the program states that they will prepare you for limited scope x-ray jobs, this usually means that you will only be able to perform a very small variety imaging tasks and can limit your potential when its time to look for jobs. If the program states that it will prepare you to be a Radiology Technician or an X-Ray Technician, be sure that’s the job your aiming for. Radiology Technicians usually have lower salaries than their ARRT certified counterparts-Radiologic Technologists.

In addition to the types of jobs the program is designed to prepare you for, you will want to compare the curriculum of various radiology schools. If one school only trains you on abdominal imaging techniques but the others go into more depth, there is probably a quality difference. Another quality indicator is to view the credentials of the instructors. If the instructors do not have at a minimum a bachelor’s degree in radiology or extensive experience in the field, you may want to take it into consideration.

The bottom line is that you’ve got to weigh your options and know your end goal before you jump into a radiology program. Talk with people who are practicing in your state and get the inside scoop. Don’t settle for vague descriptions. Get the facts and get your career started on the right note.

Source by Erika Clark

Brief Introduction About High Performance Computing

By definition, supercomputers are the fastest and most powerful computers available, and at present, the term refers to machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. They are the superstars of the high-performance class of computers. Personal computers (PCs) small enough in size and cost to be used by an individual, yet powerful enough for advanced scientific and engineering applications, can also be high-performance computers. We define HPC as machines with a good balance among the following major elements:

  • Multi-staged (pipelined) functional units.
  • Multiple central processing units (CPUs) (parallel machines).
  • Multiple cores.
  • Fast central registers.
  • Very large, fast memories.
  • Very fast communication among functional units.
  • Vector, video, or array processors.
  • Software that integrates the above effectively.

As a simple example, it makes little sense to have a CPU of incredibly high speed coupled with a memory system and software that cannot keep up with it.

High computing and supercomputers are often associated with large, government-funded agencies or with academic institutions. However, most High-Performance Computing today is in the commercial sector, in fields such as aerospace, automotive, semiconductor design, large equipment design and manufacturing, energy exploration, and financial computing.

HPC is used in other domains in which very large computations such as fluid dynamics, electromagnetic simulations, and complex materials analysis must be performed to ensure a high level of accuracy and predictability, resulting in higher quality, and safer, more efficient products. For example, HPC is used to model the aerodynamics, thermal characteristics, and mechanical properties of an automotive sub-assembly or components to find exactly the right design that balances efficiency, reliability, cost, and safety, before spending millions of dollars prototyping a real product.

Over time, the growing use of High-Performance Computing in research and in the commercial sector, particularly in manufacturing, finance, and energy exploration, coupled with a growing catalog of Computing applications, created a trend toward HPC platforms built to handle a wider variety of workloads, and these platforms are constructed using more widely available components. This use of commodity hardware components characterizes the cluster and grid era of High Performance Computing. Clusters and grids continue to be the dominant methods of deploying High Computing in both the commercial and research/academic sectors. Economies of scale, and the need to centrally manage computing resources across large organizations with diverse requirements have resulted in the practical reality that widely divergent applications are often run on the same, shared HPC infrastructure.

High performance computing can happen on:

  • workstation, desktop, laptop, smartphone!
  • supercomputer
  • Linux/MacOS/Windows/… cluster
  • A grid or a cloud
  • Cyber Infrastructure = any combination of the above

Source by Sairaj S

Components of a Public Administration Program

A complete and adequate description of the components of a program is essential to assess its implementation.

Components are:

– the strategies,

– activities,

– behaviors,

– ways of communication and

– technologies for the implementation of the program and the specification of the beneficiaries and where the implementation takes place.

A proper and accurate identification of the components of the program will assess what aspects of the program were implemented as planned, and what factors of possible influence in the implementation differences.

The correct specification of the components to assess concerns as the scope of the program (intended beneficiaries) was observed. Moreover, conjecture about the possible links between the results of the implementation and results of the program itself (in terms of production, intermediate results, impacts, etc.)…

At the same time the specification (or detail) of the contents of the program is a requirement the process for evaluation.

The own initiative to plan and carry out the assessment process contributes to a specification most appropriate and realistic content of the program. This is an important condition to ensure that the program is more effective (because the internal consistency of the program has gone through a preliminary screening) and, secondly, that the evaluation of results and impact is more effective since the program’s performance will be compared with targets and more consistent and realistic expectations.

To allow the assessment that the process can improve the design and specification of a public program, some techniques may be used.

1 – Formative Assessment: based on data collected from pilot projects and beneficiaries over the conduct of a particular intervention and giving information on the feasibility of certain activities and instruments and to what extent they are appropriate to the design plan and beneficiaries provided;

2 – Verification of the “evaluability” systematic set of procedures for the proper development of the theory behind a public program, detail and clarify theplanned uses for the data in the evaluation process, before the start of an assessment in full scale.

His most important steps include (Scheirer, 1994:49-50):

a) Involve key policy makers, managers and staff through a series of meetings to clarify their expectations for the program and the assessment itself;

b) Using a model called matrix logic diagram, detailing the expected causal relationships between three aspects of the program: resources allocated to the program, implementation of specific activities planned the program and expected results;

c) Refinement of the theory behind the program by an interactive process, using visits to project sites and information available, to examine the reality of operations in the field and the extent to which proposed theory is plausible;

d) Clarify the uses planned for the information obtained from the evaluation, through discussions with policy makers and managers of the program, including changes in the program;

e) Use of theory to help in the specification of the program. theories application of relevant to the substantive issue of which comes the program, and the use of data to elucidate the underlying processes.

This type of evaluation process is important not only to specify the content of the program but also to link program activities with measures (indicators) of income to be used in subsequent impact assessments.

The term theory here refers to the inter-related principles that explain and to assume the behavior of a person, group or organization.

Chen (1990) distinguishes two types of theories:

– the normative, which defines what a program should be and

– the causal, which describes empirically the causal relationships between proposed solutions (including contextual factors) and outcome.

The central problem in this case is to investigate the effectiveness of the program and to achieve this purpose, it uses the mechanisms to establish causal relationships between actions of a program and the final result.

The purpose of such assessment can be defined as to identify the net effects of a social intervention. Like the evaluation of goals, this approach is held after the end of the program or the same steps.

Assessment processes – This type of evaluation research in a systematic manner the development of social programs for the purpose of measuring the coverage of the social program, establish the degree to which it is reaching the target, and, especially, monitor their internal processes. The objective is to detect possible defects in the development of procedures to identify barriers and obstacles to its implementation and to generate important data for your reprogramming, through the record of events and activities.

Thus, the appropriate use of information produced during the development of the program allows changes in its content during the execution. Unlike, therefore, the previous approaches, this method of assessment is carried out simultaneously with the development of the program, also called formative assessment. Its implementation requires, however, we can design flows and processes of the program.

Moreover, presupposes the existence of adequate management information system, which served as the basis for the work of managers and evaluators when appropriate.

An application of the methodology of evaluation of social programs:

A comprehensive assessment system using methodologies that provide for the evaluation of results and evaluation processes. Further, the settings and forms of operation used in the proposed model.

Assessment of results:

Here, results are defined as consisting of immediate results, results (impacts) and the medium-term results (impacts) for the long term.

For the evaluation it is suggested the use of impact indicators for measuring the results of long-term, related to the objectives of the program and output indicators to measure the immediate results and medium term. The output indicators measure the effects of the program: from the target population as a whole and among u

sers of the program. In the first case, should be raised two types of output indicators, with research in the field or the help of databases and / or existing entries:

– Degree of global coverage:

Measures the rate of coverage of the target population for the program. Both the deficit and the surplus of people benefiting are the reasons for changes in the route. The first demonstrates the need for expansion, and second, that there is waste of resources (non-eligible as target population are benefiting);

– Degree of coverage varies from program:

Measures the participation of different subgroups of the target population proposal. This rate can portray the discrimination (or bias) in the selection of clients of the program depending on region, age, sex etc.. On the second point, i.e. the evaluation of results to users of the program, can be used to measure indicators of benefits, which take into account the specific objectives of each program or project.

Rob Vos (1993) gives some examples of indicators most commonly used among users of the program and target population:

1 – for programs of nutrition – malnutrition rates by age, mortality and morbidity;

2 – for programs of education – illiteracy rates, the repetition, of evasion; coefficients of schooling and degrees of education;

3 – to programs of health – mortality rates in general, child mortality, maternal mortality, and birth, of fertility and life expectancy at birth;

4 – for housing programs – quantitative deficit for housing, quality of construction of housing and availability of basic services. The indicators show the input means or the resources available to achieve the objectives. Scarce resources and inadequate (in financial terms, of labor, equipment etc.). Almost always tend to undermine the expected results.

Vos (1993) mentions some examples of most common indicators of input such as:

a) – to nutrition programs – availability of food per person;

b) – to education programs – relationship pupil / teacher, student / school, number of series offered by the school and availability of teaching materials for students;

c) – for health programs – number of doctors per capita, for health posts per capita; of beds per inhabitant and vaccines available per capita.

But the indicators of access to identify the determinants that make effective use of available resources in programs to achieve the goals envisaged. The most common are:

a) – to programs of health – the number of medical consultations per adult equivalent; distance to nearest health service, disposable income per family (as useful to facilitate the purchase of medicines, for example) and cultural factors;

b) – for programs of education – away from the school, curriculum adequacy and income available for family (to enable, for example, the purchase of school supplies).

Furthermore, the use of questionnaires allows for the satisfaction of the customer, being a good indicator of quality but not the only nor the most complete. In this sense it is still possible to establish composite indicators through the construction of indices formed by a set of attributes defined from the characteristics of the service.

Evaluation Process The evaluation process can be defined as a way to identify the real content of a public program, where he is being held as planned, is reaching the audience for which it was intended and whether the benefits are being distributed in the planned intensity (Scheirer, 1994:40).

Source by Artur Victoria

The Use of the Atomic Bomb on Japan – Great or Grave

President Harry S. Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan to end W.W. II was the best choice out of the options he had. At the time, the pressure to end the war without U.S. bloodshed was mounting on President Truman. He believed a huge invasion of the mainland of Japan was the only alternative to using this weapon. With the world simply tired of this war, President Truman ordered atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan was the best, but not the only, alternative to a huge mainland invasion of Japan which may have cost the United States as much as one million lives.

Peter Kross, an expert of W.W II as he is the author of “The Encyclopedia of World War II Spies” believes that the use of the bomb as necessary to win the war. According to his article “The Decision to Drop the Bomb,” Kross writes:

American casualties on Iwo Jima had been high, and as the president considered his options, thousands more were dying in Okinawa. The Joint Chiefs’ projections on the number of casualties the United States would suffer in an invasion of the Home Islands were estimated to be 50,800 by D-day plus-30 alone. If the war continued into 1946, which was expected, casualties would rise to well in excess of 100,000. (Kross)

In Kross’ analysis, the importance of winning the war with the least American bloodshed was the most important debate the United States had. They knew that the Japanese would fight to the death, so it only added to the logical thinking behind using the atomic bomb. It has been documented how cruel and gruesome the Japanese treated the Americans. So, to end the war, the United States used a new, experimental weapon that made them the superpower they are today. However, the use of the atomic bomb is shrouded in conspiracy.

Many scholars believed that the use of the atomic bomb on Japan would lead to more uses of the bomb on other countries. This is what many scholars wrote during and after the bombings. Dr. Rudolph Winnacker, a member of the history departments of the Universities of Michigan and Nebraska, stated that he was against the use of the bomb. Winnacker asserts his position by quoting Albert Einstein:

Before the raid on Hiroshima, leading physicists urged the War Department not to use the bomb against defenseless women and children. The war could have been won without it. The decision was made in consideration of possible future loss of American lives-and now we have to consider possible loss in future atomic bombings of millions of lives. The American decision may have been a fatal error, for men accustom themselves to thinking a weapon which was used once can be used again…(Winnacker)

History has shown that this statement is inaccurate. The atomic bombings of Japan remain the only times a country has used an atomic bomb against another country. As Einstein says, President Truman made the decision to use the bomb to avoid the loss of more American lives. Because millions of more lives have not been taken due to other nuclear attacks, it’s safe to say it was a good decision at the time. In addition, Ellergy C. Stowell, author of “The Laws of War and the Atomic Bomb” writes that it is a false notion that war is supposed to be fair, and that the discovery of a new weapon shouldn’t be regarded as an unfair or treacherous act. The simple truth is that during times of war, the country with the best technological and military will win. In W.W. II, this was the United States. Winnacker’s argument that the bomb wasn’t necessary is incorrect and invalid. Peter Kross provides many details of the time, such as intercepted communications by the United States from Japan stating that Japan was moving many soldier’s inland in anticipation of an attack. Albert Einstein gave the United States the information they needed in the late 1930s to develop the bomb before the Germans had any chance. And Stowell makes a great point that technological advantages are what makes a country stronger than the other. Overall, these arguments are stronger and better than Winnacker’s argument that Japan was going to surrender anyways.

Alvin Johnson, in “Twaddle on the Atomic Bomb,” writes

If it [the atomic bomb] does not deserve the credit for bringing Japan to her knees, that is only because the knees of Japan were already flexing under the overwhelming blows of non-atomic bomb power, non-atomic ships and guns and above all, non-atomic American soldiers. The fact remains that if German science had been six months ahead the outcome of the war would have been entirely different. You and I would have tasted the bitter bread of Nazi torture, unless a gentle atomic bomb had restored us to the eternal flux of the perishable atoms. Now this is an interested viewpoint. He is basically stating that, all in all, we (as in the United States) ended up in a great position. If we didn’t develop the Atomic Bomb, a different country would have. And because we were and are the only country to use the bomb, we are the only ones that were able to prove the strength of the weapon (Johnson). Johnson also proves to be somewhat of a future reader. He writes, “Under the atomic bomb there can be no war, as we have known it… ” (Johnson). All the wars since W.W II have been very different, and careful in not using the atomic bomb. MAD, or Mutually Assured Destruction, proved that we didn’t use the bomb since W. W. II. Peter Kross states it the best, writing:

It seems clear now that only an attack as devastating as those carried out at Hiroshima and Nagasaki would ever have forced the most militant elements of Japanese society to lay down their arms. President Truman’s decision to drop the bomb, whether we agree with it or not, spared further bloodshed on both sides and ended a war that had gone on for far too long. (Kross).

It seems that Kross, who wrote his article in 2005, is using more information to come to this conclusion than any of the other authors cited, which wrote there articles between the years of 1945-1947. That is actually a big difference between the primary and secondary sources regarding this subject. Primary sources didn’t have enough access to information as compared to secondary sources that have recently been released. It’s well known that it takes our government many years to declassify documents, and only secondary sources have information from declassified documents. Thus, more information has been released in the last fifty years that Kross examines to come to the above conclusion.

Winnacker admits that it’s impossible to know if Japan would have surrender without the use of the atomic bomb. He writes, “No one will ever know for certain at what tie Japan would have surrendered without the use of the atomic bomb and without an invasion of the home islands (Winnacker).” It seems that the use of the atomic bomb was indeed the correct choice. Also, it seems that the use of the atomic bomb had a great side effect that helped propel the United States into the cold war, and than as the unrivaled leader of the world. Kross writes:

It now seems clear that Truman decided to drop the bomb in order to meet two distinct political objects. First, and most important, was to end the war and prevent the deaths of countless thousands of lives in an American-led invasion of Japan. Second, the atomic blasts sent a clear political message to the Soviet Union and others about the United States’ military capabilities.

It seems safe to say that, because the U.S. is the #1 country and the Cold War witness no atomic bombings, the use of the bomb on Japan proved to be the wise choice. Because the Soviet Union beat the German’s almost single handedly, it’s possible to speculate that the Soviet Union might have been the leader of the world if the United States didn’t use the atomic bomb. But, we established military superiority by using the weapon. Even though the Cold War years were risky, history has shown that the theory of MAD, or Mutually Assured Description, kept both countries away from the Atomic Trigger. Johnson seems to have viewed that the use of the atomic bomb was too strong to use in war. In “Twaddle” he argues that traditional warfare will be back and that nuclear weapons are simply too strong to use. Again, this proved correct, as we haven’t used these weapons again.

There is no conclusion to a subject like this. Sure it’s easy to say that America saved many lives by using the Atomic Bomb. And it’s true that this was the best decision to make. There were alternatives, but President Truman’s decision to use the bomb proved to be a great decision. It ended W.W. II, made Japan surrender, made the US the major technological power house, and propelled the United States into a marvelous superpower status that we continue to enjoy today. As much of history, this subject has many “what if’s”. For instance, “What if the Japanese had surrendered without a mainland invasion?” Well, there are no answers to these questions. The fact remains that, at that time, everybody thought that Japan would fight to the death. There actions, our interceptions, and the global community seems to indicate that Japan wouldn’t simply surrender. So President Truman made what can be regarded as the hardest decision any human had to make: He saved the lives of his own soldier’s in exchange for the lives of another nation’s soldiers. And when it comes down to it, the leader of a nation’s first commitment is to safeguard his citizenry, and this is exactly what President Truman did.

Works Cited Johnson, Alvin, Twaddle on the Atomic Bomb- American Journal of Economics and Sociology > Vol. 5, No. 2 (Jan., 1946), pp.201-222 This is a primary source. Alvin Johnson wrote a great article that I interpreted as meaning that the development of the atomic bomb will change war, but the strength of the bomb will make nations reluctant to use it (again). Kross, Peter, The Decision to Drop the Bomb (cover story); World War II, Jul/Aug2005, Vol.20 Issue 4, p.20, 5p, 9bw. This is a great secondary source. Peter Kross wrote this article as the cover story for the journal World War II. Peter Kross’ work is used throughout my Review Essay because his article has declassified material and he is regarded as a World War II expert. Stowell, C. Ellergy, The Laws of War and the Atomic Bomb, The American Journal of International Law > Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 1945). Pp. 784-788This primary source is useful because it says that there is nothing fair or rational about war. The country with the better technology and/or military wins, and the United States using the Atomic Bomb was simply the case of us developing a technology for our military to use to win a war. Winnacker, A. Rudolph, The Debate About Hiroshima. Military Affairs > Vol. 11, No. 1 (Spring, 1947), pp. 25-30 This is a primary source I used to mainly argue against in my Review Essay. I used Ellergy’s, Kross’, and Johnson’s work to undermine Winnacker’s article and viewpoint.

Source by Gregory Akerman

A Book Review: Competent to Counsel by Jay Adams

Adams contends, in his book, that the Christian is Competent to Counsel. “As far as I am concerned about you, my brothers, I am convinced that you especially are abounding in the highest goodness, richly supplied with perfect knowledge and competent to counsel one another.” Romans 15:14 (Williams)

Jay Adams did not use research of scientific findings to determine that Christians are competent to counsel. His method is presuppositional as he avowedly accepts the inerrant Bible as the standard of all faith and practice. Further, he recognizes that his interpretations and applications of Scriptures are not infallible. Also, he does not wish to disregard science, but rather uses it as an adjunct to Scriptural truths. The first chapter illustrates well the condition of modern psychiatry to the extent that he states, “Referral of any sort ought to be considered by a minister only as a last resort. The fact that the an individual has sought out a Christian counselor should itself be considered of some significance.” (p. 19)

Since counseling is the work of the Holy Spirit, one must seek His guidance in order to be effective. (John 14:16,17; Isaiah 9:6) “The Holy Spirit is God with us. Counselors and those seeking counsel alike must respect the sovereignty of the Holy Spirit.” (p. 22) The textbook of Christian counselors must be the Word of God.

Adams reminds us that the Bible separates organic, physically based problems and those that stem from sinful attitudes and behavior.

After three chapters of “introduction”, Adams defines “nouthetic counseling” in his fourth chapter. “Jesus Christ is at the center of all true Christian counseling. Any counseling which moves Christ from that point has to the extent that it has done so ceased to be Christian.” Nouthetic confrontation is to be done by the whole church, not just the minister. (Colossians 3:16; Romans 15:14) “Nouthetic” is a transliteration. Translations for the Greek word include: admonish, warn, teach. There are three elements of nouthetic confrontation:

1) “implies a problem, and presupposes an obstacle that must be overcome; something is wrong in the life of the one who is confronted.”

2) “problems are solved nouthetically by verbal means.”

3) “the verbal correction is intended to benefit the” individual seeking counsel. (p. 44-49)

Consider these: II Timothy 3:16; Colossians 1:28; II Timothy 4:2; II Corinthians 11:29; I Timothy 1:5.

Qualifications for Nouthetic Counseling:

  • Goodness and knowledge – Romans 15:14
  • Wisdom – Colossians 3:16; Proverbs 1:7

After dealing with a number of other issues, Adams finishes his book by discussing “Christian School Teachers as Nouthetic Counselors”. “The Christian teacher (not a counseling specialist) is the key to counseling in the school. If the teacher is qualified to be a Christian school teacher, given the conviction and a minimum of the right sort of training and experience, that teacher can do more effective counseling than the self-styled experts.” “Like other Christians, the Christian teacher may draw upon all of the resources of God: Scripture, prayer, and the church, in the context of the Holy Spirit.” (p. 252)

The classroom is the ideal environment, on a daily basis with a penalty and reward system under the authority of God where the student is during the most productive hours of the day. Deuteronomy 6:7 and ll:19

Adams presents his case well and reminds Christians to trust the Holy Spirit to guide in this important work.

Competent to Counsel – available on: http://www.amazon.com

Source by Maggie Dail