Modern Computer Networking and Its Importance For Business

Computer networking is the connecting of two or more computers that allows them to share resources. It can be done between computers in a home, in a business, across a corporation, and even internationally. It can equally be defined as a method of connecting two or more computer systems together including printers and other devices.

The benefits of networking are considerable, even on a network of only three systems. In computer networking there was never a truer statement than that this is a case of advantages experienced being far greater than the sum of the parts. PC networking is, as a consequence, a rapidly evolving discipline with many exciting opportunities. Challenges that arise in networking and particularly in the Internet tend to be truly global and have the potential to impact upon millions of users.

One huge and growing impact is Internet shopping. Shopping online has grown over the last 10 years to become a huge market, and if a sales business does not today incorporate this technology use they will fall behind their competitors.

But computer networking is also producing much more subtle uses within our societies. For example, Internet technologies can be deployed to favorably condition empathic response in those who have offended against community norms out of a lack of appreciation for the effects that their criminal behavior has on other people. In other words Internet linked devices can track home prisoners to maintain their behavior, in ways that 20 years ago had not even entered the heads of science-fiction writers, to the benefit of society as a whole.

Wireless Internet technology, is the development, also known as WiFi, which is really taking over the way people access the Internet and it has become widely popular in a very short space of time. One reason for this is it allows individuals to access the Internet via a network hot spots, while traveling without the use of cables or wires. In short it releases us from the tyranny of wires and plugs!

Wireless networks are now widely used including Internet-enabled mobile phones with cellular phone networks and, within buildings, wireless networks such as Bluetooth. These are in addition to the site networks used by academic institutions and large businesses. Wireless routers must be configured immediately for security right after you set up your network. It is important to emphasis that wireless can easily also mean insecure unless users are careful to set systems up correctly.

So, do this right away, as soon as you have got the device running. You need to set a new password for the router and limit access to only those computers on your wireless network.

Informally defined computer networking is the foundation of the Internet. The Internet itself is easier to understand when defined as the set of users, enterprises,and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP).

From an engineering standpoint, and please forgive me for being rather techie here; the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol . Computer networks may also be classified according to the network layer at which they operate according to some basic reference models that are considered to be standards in the industry such as the seven layer OSI reference model and the five layer TCP/IP model.

Companies that use their own computer networks must administer complex systems which, once deployed, become vital tools for the continued efficiency of their operations. They employ administrators who focus primarily on the day-to-day operation of networks, while network engineers deal primarily with system upgrades, security testing, and so on.

Given the highly technological nature of computer networks you would have thought that just maintaining and developing these would be hard enough. However, companies also routinely face ongoing challenges with the fight against damaging software, such as malware such as worms, viruses, and spyware.

Computer networking has enabled people to work on the move, and take work home much more efficiently than has ever been possible before. Today’s mobile workforce attach numerous devices to the corporate network that are hard to control from a security policy perspective. It is a common strand that companies that maximize the use of and benefits from the capacities and capabilities of their networks are able to gather, analyze, and disseminate critical marketing information quickly, which can give them an advantage over their competitors.

However, data loss and system downtime can bring any business to it’s knees, so in this area to use the strictly cheapest systems and labor, may be a false economy of the first order. There are many highly trained staff who participate in Microsoft’s certified computer networking courses and qualification. These specialists are more than able to protect your business network day and night. They deliver network support services which include data security, data backup and disaster recovery plans.

Source by Steve Last

Sciatica and Chronic Back Pain Natural Solution – Herbal Anti-Inflammatory Cure That Treats Backache

Details about your activities, your medical background and your morphology can often throw light on the reasons of your back pain complaint. Back pain can occur as the result of pathologies such as lumbago, osteoarthritis, slipped disc or sciatica. You may ask: Why am I suffering from sciatica? Is there a natural herbal remedy able to relieve and cure my chronic backaches and sciatica?

Sciatica Significance

There is sometimes confusion about the meaning of the term ‘sciatica’. A lot of persons think that sciatica refers to a specific diagnostic or elucidation of the pain source. In reality, sciatica or radiculopathy (exact medical term) describes a group of symptoms such as tingling and pains in the leg, in the buttock or even on the back of the thigh. The patient can suffer from a nagging pain that prevent him or her from standing up and can have problems to move one leg very well. The low back region can ache too. A compression or irritation in one or more of the sciatic nerves is often the principal cause of sciatica.

Turmeric: Natural Anti-Inflammatory Medicine

It has long been known that an Asiatic plant of the ginger family has potent anti-inflammatory properties. Its name is Curcuma Longa or Turmeric. We usually use Turmeric rhizome yellow powder as a flavored spice in curry or mustard. But did you know that Turmeric is an herbal medicine very helpful to treat a lot of ailments? There are scientific evidences that curcumin, a compound of this plant root, works in the body as an anti-inflammatory drug comparable as cortisone or phenylbutazone.

Up until now you have been found relief from sciatica or back pain with conventional pain-killers which unfortunately come with a lot of bad side effects. If you prefer use a natural product to reduce the inflammation of the sciatica nerve try Turmeric dried rhizome! The average dose of Turmeric dried root an adult can take every day is between 2 to 3 grams. You may take it as a tea twice a day if you like! The other alternative would be to buy in pharmacy curcumin capsules. In this case, ask the pharmacist about the doses you would have to take and other helpful recommendations.

Good News

Although Turmeric is a very good ant-inflammatory natural product, it cannot treat the very cause of your sciatica or whatever back pains you may have. To get rid of your health problems for good, you would need to follow a specific therapy able to fix your spine dysfunctions.

Source by Alexis Roger

Why Art and Music Education is Important

For the past ten years, public schools have had trouble funding school programs such as art class and music class. Not having at least some kind of music or art education gives kids a severe disadvantage when they enter college and the work place. In art and music classes, children learn to be creative and use other parts of their brain besides the logical part of the brain used in most school subjects. Also, studies have shown that music and art help kids in other subjects like science and math. Studies have shown, too, that art and music class can help kids gain confidence needed to succeed in school and in the professional world. Finally, in art class, students learn how to use tools like drafting chairs and drafting tables that many professionals use, such as architects and graphic designers. Therefore, it is essential that public schools make sure they get the funding they need to keep these programs alive.

Music and art classes teach kids about creativity. When children are being creative they are using a different part of their brain that they don’t use in regular classes, like math and science. It is important to develop this creative part of the brain, so kids have a better chance at being successful in their chosen career path. For example, a child who wants to go into advertising as a career choice will need to have creativity to come up with new and innovative ads for a company. If kids only have an education in science, math, English, and social studies, then they will not be prepared for life after school.

There have been many studies that have proven that art and music education help kids do better in their regular classes. It is a fact that a good music education leads to better math grades. Art education helps teach children to be creative, which then helps them learn to come up with creative solutions to problems given to them in other classes. For example, in science class being creative would help the student come up with innovative and new hypothesis in class, which may result in better grades. Art and music class are important in helping teach children tools that can be applied to other classes.

Tools that are used in the art classroom and instruments used in music class teach kids how to be responsible for expensive equipment that they will most likely be working with for future employers. For example, having a child be put in charge of a musical instrument helps teach the child responsibility and it helps teach them to be respectful of equipment that is not theirs. This is important because employers will expect there future employees to be able to be responsible and take care of any materials that will be on loan to the employee, like a computer, for example.

Public school boards need to make sure that music and art programs in their schools are well funded. Art and music education helps teach children the creativity that is needed for numerous jobs. Art and music classes also help teach children tools that can be used in other classes that will help improve their grades. Finally, using instruments and art supplies in these classes help teach kids responsibility and respect for items that are not theirs. Children who do not have any kind of music or art education will surely be at a disadvantage when entering college or the work force.

Source by Connor R Sullivan

The Importance of Learning Chinese As a Second Language

There is a growing desire world-wide to understand the sometimes misunderstood country of China and benefit from studying the most widely spoken language in the world. More and more people both young and old are learning the language to increase business opportunities and for personal reasons. In fact, quite a few prominent individuals have decided to learn Chinese and broaden their horizons. Among them are former Australian Prime minister, Kevin Rudd; the U.S. President Obama’s daughter, Malia Obama and the successful entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg. They all chose to study Chinese as their second language. The study of the language opens the doorway to a variety of important fields including Chinese politics, history, economy and other business opportunities.

In 2010, 750,000 people from around the world took the Official Chinese Proficiency Test. The individuals who began studying the language were very diverse, varying in both industries and backgrounds. There is a huge growth worldwide in the number of non-Chinese, heritage people learning Mandarin. In fact, recently President Obama announced a new initiative aimed at having 1 million American school children learn Mandarin Chinese over the next five years. The Chinese economy is quickly becoming the world’s largest economy once again, which makes it crucial for Westerners to better understand Chinese culture, and prepare American students to deal with China in future jobs.

Obama announced the new initiative while standing aside Chinese President Xi Jinping, who said 2016 “will be a year of tourism between China and the United States.” He said 50,000 students will participate in an exchange program between the two countries within the next three years.

It’s easy to see why knowing Mandarin and understanding China is so important when you factor that they have 1.28 billion people, which equals one fifth of the global population. Presently, China is the second largest economy in the world, along with world powerhouses such as the U.S., England and other parts of the Europe. In 2014, China’s top three trading partners were the U.S. at $521 billion, Hong Kong at $401 billion and Japan.

The demand for learning Chinese as a second language has gone up dramatically, which has made the services that teach the language very popular. According to the Chinese Ministry of Education, more than 330 official institutions are teaching Chinese as a foreign language around the world. The majority of the students are from other countries. Unfortunately, it’s impossible for everyone wishing to learn Chinese to take a course in the country of origin. That’s why online services offering one-on-one tutoring are very valuable. These services aim to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges. Students who enroll in these types of programs are able to speak directly with someone from China, so they see great results in just a few weeks. All the teachers are authentic Mandarin speakers, which helps with pronunciation.

Learning Chinese benefits anyone in “the West” or from countries that make up China’s largest trading partners’ such as U.S., Australia and Germany. Now more than ever, it’s crucial to learn this language and gain better knowledge of one of the oldest cultures in the world.

Source by Melissa Bill

Eight Types Of Audio Engineering

Audio engineering is only a part of the science of sound that deals with recording and remaking sound through mechanic and electronics. A person who wants to get into this field much be proficient with different types of recording equipment and will often simply choose one aspect of the process to master. There are 8 basic branches that an engineer can choose from.

A studio engineer is someone who works in a studio with a producer or one that works in a studio alone as a producing sound engineer. They are responsible for making the different tracts sound the best that it is able to. They analyze the technical and musical aspects of the present sounds and adjust their equipment and performance of the artist so that it sounds the best that it possible can.

A recording engineer uses a mixing board to manipulate different sounds from music, television, and radio. They may also install sound effects and speed up and slow down tempos depending on what sound they are attempting to create. They are most responsible for adjusting the audio to please the customer.

A mixing engineer takes different tracks and mixes them together. This can be useful if you have a performers voice on one track and the music on another. They must balance and adjust the different tracks so that it sounds good and will appeal to an audience.

Some sound engineers work specifically on games. They are responsible for all the sound effects and music that makes a game interesting and realistic. They must be familiar with the game that they are working on and place appropriate sounds in the places where it is needed.

A live sound engineer is responsible for making the sounds produced at a live performance or event sound their best. They may be responsible for setting up speakers in the best places, using a mixing board, and managing any sounds or noises that is required. They commonly work with bands and any other individuals who often give live performances.

Fold back engineers also work at live events. They monitor and enhance what the audience hears. They are supposed to make sure that audience hears all the important things while trying to cut back on other sounds.

System engineers are responsible for the design, setup, and operation of PA systems. These systems may be really complex and can often be difficult to manage. They must set them up and design them so that they are able to properly manage any of the sounds that are produced.

Audio post engineers edits and mixes the sound that is produced for films and television shows. They must manage all the different sounds that are required to make them seem realistic and to appeal to the audience. They must also balance the sound effects so that actors voices are not covered up or overshadowed by them.

There are several different branches that a person interested in audio engineering can choose from. You should choose which one best suits your interests and talents for a career. Sound engineers must the capable of using a variety of different equipment and must be able to listen and analyze the audio for any given thing.

Source by Adriana A Noton

The 3 Idiots of the Education System

“I am beginning to suspect all elaborate and special systems of education. They seem to me to be built up on the supposition that every child is a kind of idiot who must be taught to think”. ~ Anne Sullivan.

I was conducting a Discover Your True Calling workshop at IIM, Indore last week. I had the afternoon free and decided to see the much acclaimed, high-grossing Bollywood movie – “3 Idiots”. I thoroughly enjoyed the movie, largely because it is a complete indictment of our education system. The message was strikingly similar to the theme of my workshop.

The film is about three students who do not really fit into the prestigious engineering college and are considered idiots by their professor. However, the movie clearly shows who the three real idiots are – the educational system, the teachers and the parents. Reflecting on the movie on the flight back to Mumbai, I realized that any real change in education is possible only by transforming these three constituencies.

Idiot #1 – The Education System:

Our current system is performance-oriented rather than mastery-oriented. The emphasis on examinations forces students to learn by rote. They focus on scoring high marks rather than investing the time and energy to understand the subject in depth. A system where true geniuses like Einstein and Ramanujan are considered poor students really needs its head examined. In the movie, this is brilliantly brought out by Aamir Khan playing Rancho – the truly outstanding engineer who goes beyond the book to gain mastery.

Idiot #2 – The Teachers:

Our current system of pedagogy is faculty-led and follows a fixed curriculum. The average teacher assumes that there is one right answer and that (s)he knows the answer. It is the rare teacher who has the ability to facilitate rather than teach, to nurture rather than preach and to support students who stray from the well-trodden path in search of creative ways to learn. Boman Irani as Viru Sahastrabuddhe does a superb job of bringing to life a dogmatic, highly competitive, over-confident college professor – the antithesis of an ideal teacher in every way.

Idiot #3 – The Parents:

When India’s HRD Minister Kapil Sibal suggested scrapping of the 10th grade exams, parents were the first to stand up against the proposal. Parents want their children to be at the top of their classes, get admitted to the best colleges and follow traditional career options – engineering, medicine, management and the like.

Parents rarely encourage their children to discover their true passions and pursue mastery rather than mediocrity. The movie’s middle class Quereshis, who want their son to be an engineer, and the poorer Rastogis, who see education as a way out of poverty, are typical of today’s Indian parents. They would probably be the toughest nut to crack.

The 21st century calls for talented people who are masters in their chosen fields of work. It calls for collaboration among passionate individuals, from different disciplines, to address the truly challenging issues and opportunities that the world presents. The current assembly-line approach to education falls severely short. We are not equipping our children to succeed in their world. The appeal of the movie is universal and obvious.

But what will it take for all three of the constituencies above, as well as the student community to rally around to a new educational order? Please share your perspectives. We need to work together to bring about transformation in this vital area of our society.

Source by Sudhakar Ram

Avoid Summer Learning Loss – Four Tips For Fun Summer Learning

Summer is not far off and finding an array of fun summer learning activities will not only engage your child but can help ward off summer learning loss. You are like most families, preparing for the summer vacation break from school. Your child has progressed nicely through the academics of the current school year and is looking forward to a break. School provides a routine for learning and practicing material. What happens to this routine during the summer?

Research shows that students lose a month of academic achievement over the summer months. That means that they retain 8 months of information from a typical 9 month school year. For computational math and spelling, they may lose 2.6 months. Students retain only about 2/3 of the information they learned in these subjects. How do you as a parent limit this summer learning loss? Here are a few tips.

Fun Summer Learning Tip # 1- Reading during the summer is important. Students are required to read during the school year and should continue to develop their reading abilities during the summer. Find out at the local library about summer reading programs. The librarians should be able to recommend books for your child that are age appropriate as well as those that are of interest to your child. You should try to be a good role model and read as well. Let your child see you read. Children who frequently read often have parents who also read.

Fun Summer Learning Tip # 2- Are you planning a summer vacation away from home? Encourage your child to make a journal about the trip. This is a good way to practice writing skills. Have your child help map out the trip to practice math and science skills. Are you planning to visit historic sites? Have your child write about these as well. He could create a play and become a character from the historical time period. Encourage your child to write about his summer activities in addition to vacation. He may learn to do something new, like ride a bike, and a record of his progress would be interesting.

Fun Summer Learning Tip # 3- Having your child help with cooking is a way to practice math and science skills. Following a recipe is a good way to practice following directions. Most recipes have fractions for various amounts of ingredients. This, of course, is math practice.

Fun Summer Learning Tip # 4- Consider tutoring for your child during the summer months. Your child can practice skills learned during the school year and get a deeper understanding of the knowledge he acquired. He can also get a head start on the next school year. Online tutoring offers a convenient option. There is no commuting for you or the tutor. Tutoring sessions fit more easily into your schedule. Online tutoring uses technology that students love, computers and the internet.

Writing about summer activities, reading age appropriate books, adult supervised cooking, and tutoring are all fun summer learning activities that can reinforce what your child learned during the school year. By incorporating subjects like reading, writing, math, and science into activities in which you participate during the summer, you can limit the summer learning loss for your child.

Source by Lorie Moffat

Accepting Non-Acceptance

It’s not always easy to stand in the midst of a group of people (particularly if those people are people that we have known and are attached to emotionally) and be different. To think differently, to believe differently, to respond differently, to live a different life than our friends and our family are living is, in a sense, the “toughest challenge” of manifesting our spiritual self. The threat inherent to this situation is that those we love, those we care about, those we have always depended upon for emotional support and encouragement will turn against us because we no longer follow the same belief system that they do.

In some situations, this fear of un-acceptance is not an invalid one; it is a fear based on a working knowledge and a working understanding of the prevailing philosophy within that group of individuals. If the prevailing philosophy is one which denies all truth except their own, then it is, indeed, a major risk-taking to suggest that another avenue of truth might have some truth within it.

Because the foundation of most individuals who work from a single truth basis – that is, who believe that their truth is the only truth – is based more on an emotional acceptance of the truth as it has been presented through other people than on an inner acceptance that the truth that they profess has been confirmed within their inner self and is, indeed, the truth, these individuals have a tendency to respond to any “different idea,” any “different thought,” from a position of defensiveness.

Defensiveness is not usually manifested as defensiveness. In some cases it is manifested from an authority position in which one individual takes it upon them­selves to lecture another individual and tell them “what is truth” and remind them of “what is right and what is wrong.” Sometimes it is manifested as anger: personal insults that come as a result of feeling that their belief system is being questioned or invalidated. Sometimes it is taken as resentment; this resentment is usually much deeper than the individuals involved recognize, for the resentment is not so much for the new chain of thought as it is for the willingness on the part of the other individual to step outside of the confines that have been established through their religious belief system and explore on their own.

While the mouth may profess that this is wrong, the inner self recognizes that this is right, and resents the fact that one individual had the courage to pursue their inner truth while he did not. Anger and sarcasm are often used to manifest a personal power that will enable one individual to manipulate the wandering individual back to where he needs to be according to that first individual’s perception. All of these are very effective tools against “straying from the fold,” but not the MOST effective.

The most effective tool against spiritual growth is guilt. The religious structures of today are based on doctrine that very clearly states “what is right and what is wrong behavior” on the part of the follower; any individual who breaks this code is made to feel guilty, not only on an external level but internally, for his conscious mind has been taught that this is wrong and this is bad, and until the personal growth process has been completed – and all of the elements are in place to support that spiritual exploration – the conscious mind will continue to remind those individuals that they are doing something wrong. The conscious mind will question their faith. The conscious mind will question the goodness of pursuing spiritual truth. The conscious mind will question other issues as well: “If you believe in God, why do you need any other answers? Acceptance is God’s way, and you should simply accept things at face value. That is the true measure of faith in God.”

Faith in God has nothing to do with faith in the ability of mankind as a species to record and maintain the record of God’s relationship with man.

Faith in God has nothing to do with faith in various individuals throughout the ages who have served as God’s emissaries and have taught spiritual learning in a physical existence.

Faith in God is not the same as faith in individuals who chose to follow one or another of these great teachers, and later put their working knowledge of what that individual accomplished into a permanent record, and faith in God has nothing to do with faith in the ability of monks throughout the centuries to translate those original documents so that nothing was lost in the translation, nothing was reinterpreted in the translation, nothing was changed in the translation that might change the entire concept that was being presented.

I would remind you of a basic historical fact, and that is that they had no Bible in Christ’s time. The books of the Bible were written over a period of several centuries by and for the Jewish culture, and were naturally written from a perspective that supported and encouraged the belief system of that culture. The New Testament was written within the first one hundred years after Christ’s death for the purpose of documenting his teachings and for the purpose of explaining those teachings and working with the groups of Christians in various cities to apply those teachings to their day to day lifestyles. These teachings to these groups of Christians are known now as “The Epistles” or “The Letters.” It was never intended by the individuals who wrote those epistles that they should become the frame­work of religious doctrine.

It was simply a case of the teachers of Christianity trying to make the average person understand how the one on one relationship with God can be integrated into your life, thereby relieving stress and worry. The suggestions as to how that manifestation of belief system on a daily basis might be accomplished were simply that – suggestions.

It was not Jesus Christ who said that women must have their heads covered.

It was not Jesus Christ who said that man should not eat meat on Fridays.

It was teachers who said this, teachers who were attempting to teach the whole – that is, the culture – how to apply spiritual truth to their daily lives, and faith in this particular group of individuals – who combined are the authors of the New Testament – has nothing to do with your level of faith in God.

It must be very clearly understood that God is separate and apart and at the same time is interconnected to every living form in this universe, but that does not make God responsible for Man’s conscious choices in terms of what information to present and how to present it. Men are only men, and no matter how pure their hearts may be, their conscious minds are not, and the emotional and the intellectual and the physical implications of their present moment when they wrote what they wrote – which would later become the New Testament – certainly affected their present moment interpretation of the spiritual knowledge that they contained within their subconscious mind.

There are many great teachings in the Bible, but it should not be taken word for word and applied to one’s daily lifestyle today. It is not the physical acts that the emphasis should be placed on. The question is not how to worship; the question is how to manifest your belief system on a daily basis by applying the principles of that belief system to your day to day lifestyle. The suggestions given in the epistles were appropriate to the lifestyles of the individuals those letters were directed to, but we certainly do not experience the same day to day lifestyle in 1995 in the United States of America that they experienced in Judah in 93 A.D.

The environment is different. The socio-economic position is different. The political situation is different. The degree of man’s awareness is different. The ability of the conscious mind to understand what is happening is different, and these differences must be taken into consideration before one accepts at face value the teachings that were intended for the early churches.

It is the concepts of manifesting the Christian belief system that are important. It is the concepts that must be evaluated and confirmed or denied as part of one’s personal truth, and the physical aspects of how to worship should be translated into terms that are more ap­plicable to today’s life­style. Only when this adjustment has been made will one find that the Christian foundation does, indeed, fit their modern day lifestyle.

Source by Lois Grant-Holland

Leadership and Influence Processes

How do executives affect their respective organizations? This question has been asked by many top researchers in the field of leadership. Hambrick (2007) believes those leaders within the upper echelons behave on the foundation of their personal views and understanding of “strategic situations”, as well as their cultural values, personal experiences and individual personalities. This has been the basis of the upper echelon theory for many years, which was developed on the principle of bounded rationality (Cyert & March, 1963; March & Simon, 1958). However, regardless of these types of utterly complex situations and “uncertain situations” (Mischel, 1977), leaders within the upper echelon of an organization have specific processes through which they can influence and change an institution.

Specifically, six influence processes allow leaders to shape the strategic direction and performance of the organization. Beginning with direct decisions, leaders have the ability to shape the choices their followers have based solely on the control they have of the vision and mission of the organization (Nahavandi, 2006). These two variables (i.e., vision and mission) thus affect the culture of the institution by clearly focusing on what the organization deems important and valuable (Nahavandi, 2006). In addition to the ability for leaders to affect the vision, mission and strategy of an institution – upper echelon leaders have a direct relationship with management, which plays a vital role in shaping (or re-shaping) strategy, dictating decision making and setting the climate or structure of the organization (Miller and Droge, 1993; Nahavandi, 2006). Leaders determine the organizational structure through the “direct decisions” of variables that affect the structure or indirectly through the people they influence (Nahavandi, 2006). As a fictitious example, Stanley Wang of Acme Toys joined the company just prior to the founder’s retirement. The founder, James Green, was forced to make a direct decision as to whether or not to make Stanley the new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company. This decision would directly impact the organizational structure and influence the culture of the organization based on Stanley’s personal values and experience.

The allocation of resources is also another way upper echelon leaders have significant impact to an organization (Schein, 2004). These leaders are the top decision makers on the allocation of resources (i.e., human, technology, money, etc.) to both individuals and organizational units (Nahavandi, 2006). For example, a CEO may want to push the sale of a series of new products, so the CEO may dedicate a large portion of the overall budget to the sales and marketing business units and pull funding from other business units which are of lesser concern. In this example, the allocation of resources supports specific objectives (i.e., mission) in support of corporate strategy and creates a structure that enables the aspired outcomes (Nahavandi, 2006; Miller, 1987).

In addition to direct decisions and the allocation of resources, reward systems (formal and informal) also have a significant impact on the culture of an institution or its employees (Schein, 2004; Nahavandi, 2006). Most of us are familiar with this type of behavior in the form of monetary incentives when we adhere or conform to specific behavioral standards and/or achieve goals that reflect the mission of the organization. For example, an employee may receive a 10% bonus if he/she obtains a specific sales revenue or gross margin target of a product or service.

However, reward systems are not only limited to monetary gain, but also through the selection and promotion of other leaders (Nahavandi, 2006). Those who adhere and fit the organizational culture and structure, as well as meet individual goals and objectives are much more likely to be promoted to top leadership positions – as opposed to those who do not (Nahavandi, 2006). This process can be true for almost any situation; those who naturally fit well into an organization’s mission and culture are more apt to be selected and rewarded in some fashion.

Both of these influence processes can be seen across the board in our example scenarios. Again using Acme Toys as an example, Stanley Wang was rewarded significantly by his boss, James Green, by giving him all the company’s high profile projects. He was then given every possible award the company had to offer; thus justifying his future selection for CEO.

According to Nahavandi (2006) while rewarding employees encourages specific “behaviors and decisions” that fall in line with the culture of the organization, leaders who act as role models and enact standards for decision making have a greater impact to the organization. For example, an upper echelon leader may ask their top sales managers to develop a strategic sales plan that will accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. Although, he does not dictate how they accomplish those objectives, he can be assured they will accomplish the desired outcome by setting decision making standards and clear guidelines.

An additional way leaders affect organizations is through their own behavior or role modeling (Nahavandi, 2006; Schein, 2004). A leader who is passionate about customer service will focus on this passion in information that is transferred to his or her employees. This can also be shown in terms of ethics, and how a leader communicates and expects employees to behave. This might be communicated through the vision and/or mission or through regular communication to employees. For example, as President of Uniform Data Link, Leslie Marks made it a point to become a role model for her employees. She moved her office from the third floor to the first floor to show that everyone was equal and your title within the company does not dictate the level of importance you have. She regularly encouraged everyone to share ideas and worked directly with engineers instead of working through layers of management. Leslie also reinforced her values of comfort in the workplace by coming to work in jeans almost every day.

Whether it’s direct decisions, rewards, role modeling or the allocation of resources – leaders have many influence processes that impact their organizations (Nahavandi, 2006). By utilizing these processes, upper echelon leaders essentially create a mirror image of their own personal style, values, preferences and experience.

References

Cyert, R. M., & March, J. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: An update. Academy of management review , 32 (2), 334-343.

March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.

Miller, D. (1987). The genesis of configuration. Academy of management review , 12, 686-701.

Miller, D., & Droge, C. (1986). Psychological and traditional determinants of structure. Administrative science quarterly , 31 (4), 539-560.

Mischel, W. (1977). The interaction of person and situation. In D. Magnusson, & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology (pp. 217-247). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Schein, E. (2004). 2004. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schein, E. H. (1983). The role of the founder in creating organizational culture. Organizational dynamics , 12 (1), 13-28.

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Source by Ryan Strayer

Importance of Music in School Cirruculum

There are some basic reasons that justify the inclusion of music in the elementary curriculum.

The first of the reasons is that music serves mainly as an aesthetic or a visual experience. This experience basically involves the observation of significance with the help of sound images rather than all the way through printed communication, discussion, any sort of arithmetical modus operandi, or additional type of expression.

The improvement of one’s artistic intellect has proved the ability of being able to enhance the excellence of life equally throughout the school years and through the later years. Music’s significance as an opportunity to identity consciousness has been confirmed by experts such as Rogers and Maslow.

The second reason for which music is regarded to be an important part of the curriculum, is the role that it plays in understanding the culture. Music is a true demonstration of the traditions, community culture, aspirations and accomplishments of humankind. In music are embedded various custom values, and beliefs of the common man.

At the same time, communication with the help of music is sort of abstract; the learner must be educated to interpret this nonfigurative representation of music coordination in order to understand it.

Finally, for the reason that music edification is supported on the technique the brain understands music, it is capable of manipulating the expansion and growth of the superior cognitive procedures of the brain that are usually not possible in other fields. In recent times revealed study at the University of California has shown that prepared melody teaching improves student’s spatial aptitude, which holds a significant constituent in arithmetical way of thinking and judgment.

Supplementary investigation in this field have revealed that the brain ought to have loaded, sensory knowledge experiences if it wants to raise itself to a higher level of intellectual growth and ability. Students dispossessed of these sensory stimulation that are provided specially by music have been equated by enlightening experts to youths who at some point of time in their lives experienced brain inactivity or damage.

Lessons in music have shown their benefits by increasing the creativity and ability of the mind as well as decisive and contradictory philosophy. These are some essential skills that are needed by the brain to develop into a higher being for the present and future work place.

Clearly, all of these profits that are listed above are unswervingly connected to one’s mastery of the customs of thoughts and meaning in music and to one’s aptitude to understand writing and appreciate the fine distinction of denotation which it encloses. This is the explanation that states the importance and necessity of music in the elementary education.

With these benefits of music come to light, the focus and stress on inclusion of music has increased by many folds. With the media paying more attention to the needs of education, and the proposed budget cut reductions, the schools are now forced to cut some corners in their facilities and curriculum. However, the schools have kept intact the basic elementary classes of physical and musical training that help the students develop into a better human being at all levels.

The music classes that have been an integral part of some school curriculums classes have shown excellent results. The following explains the various benefits that have been shown by the application of music on children aged between four years to fifteen years.

Arithmetic ability: Music and melody compositions that had been included in the curriculum for children aged between four to fifteen years of age have shown positive results in deciding the mathematical ability of the children. Music has shown itself to help the child’s brain develop in an enhanced manner, thereby resulting in a better aptitude and skill to understand arithmetic as soon as they get older.

Since math’s is an integral part of our lives at every stage of life, it is essential to develop good mathematical skills. In order to survive in the technology driven world of today, it is very important for the children to develop their arithmetic and logical abilities from childhood.

Especially with our global economy, By refusing to expose our children to music at an early age we may be robbing them of an essential skill to compete with other countries.

Science Skills: These skills are also a benefit of music classes for many of the same reasons as before. Music enhances our children’s reasoning skills, which is important to understand how science works. Again, these skills are required for our children to be competitive in the future.

Reading Skills: Music classes teach the students on how to concentrate on small things. In order to efficiently understand what is being read and written, music is an essential element for its success. It also enhances memory and recall skills. This is helpful in all areas of our children’s education. With illiteracy rate going up in our country, we must begin to try to enhance these skills.

Community Skills: Music permits our kids to make effort in groups to generate music as a whole. By putting your child’s name down in the music programs in school, you actually consent your youngster to become skilled at how to lend a hand and work together with others for a universal goal.

These classes allow children how normally wouldn’t associate with each other to cooperate and promote unity. A sense of belonging is very important in our culture today. Especially important to those who grow up in environment which constantly plague on their emotions. Studies show that music classes enhance self-esteem in their students. Music education may also be an important step in reducing the incidence of violence in our school by bringing the students together.

Moreover, other than these skills, music classes also help the children to increase their Intelligence quotient levels. At times, children who are dealing wit hearing and speech problems since childhood cope up with these inhibitions during a music class.

It also helps children who experience inhalation and verbal communication intricacies and learning disabilities. They may be many other things that have not been discovered.

By do away with these classes from our child’s schools, in reality we are stealing from our children the essential abilities that are required by them to build a better future for themselves. These kids are going to be the ones who run everything in now a few years. Do you want that your child gets incomplete education in any form? Or do you want to hand your own future in such hands which do not possess sufficient skills to carve a better future for themselves?

Some of the examples of doing these are listed below:

1. Singing which is pure form of complete musical expression in all cultures across the globe. It helps the child to open up and improve his communication skills. It helps them to express their ideas and thoughts in a better manner.

2. Instruments also play an important role as a means to enhance interpersonal behavior and expression. Also playing of musical instruments in a group helps the child to learn about team spirit.

3. Composing and writing lyrics for melodies, is a very creative activity that is again an important method to improve communication skills and learn to effectively express one’s thoughts.

Music classes are indispensable. Do not allow your ignorance position in the system of our children’s opportunity. Inform yourself on the reimbursements of these lessons. If you have a different opinion that is okay, but try to understand the other side of the debate before making your decision.

If in case, the local school in your city is planning to do away with the music classes after heeding to some parents, step forward and be vocal. Raise your concern and try to advise the ignorant. Endeavor to bring to an end your neighboring school organization from taking from our children the essential skills.

In case, you stand unproductive in your endeavors to stop the school administration from barring music classes, try to get them reinstalled by some way. Show them examples and results that have been researched.

If you know some children who have taken benefits from these music classes, ask them to help the children of the school in knowing the benefits of music. That will greatly help as children tend to listen to their own age groups better. One or two lessons per week or enough to get the benefits of music classes.

Source by Mark Ben