The Study of Poetry

Literary Criticism is, as Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), the Victorian poet and critic points out, a “disinterested endeavor to learn and propagate” the best that is known and thought in the world. And he strove hard to fulfill this aim in his critical writings. Attaching paramount importance to poetry in his essay “The Study of Poetry”, he regards the poet as seer. Without poetry, science is incomplete, and much of religion and philosophy would in future be replaced by poetry. Such, in his estimate, are the high destinies of poetry.

Arnold asserts that literature, and especially poetry, is “Criticism of Life”. In poetry, this criticism of life must conform to the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty. Truth and seriousness of matter, felicity and perfection of diction and manner, as are exhibited in the best poets, are what constitutes a criticism of life.

Poetry, says Arnold, interprets life in two ways: “Poetry is interpretative by having natural magic in it, and moral profundity”. And to achieve this the poet must aim at high and excellent seriousness in all that he writes.This demand has two essential qualities. The first is the choice of excellent actions. The poet must choose those which most powerfully appeal to the great primary human feelings which subsist permanently in the race. The second essential is what Arnold calls the Grand Style – the perfection of form, choice of words, drawing its force directly from the pregnancy of matter which it conveys.

This, then, is Arnold’s conception of the nature and mission of true poetry. And by his general principles – the” Touchstone Method” – introduced scientific objectivity to critical evaluation by providing comparison and analysis as the two primary tools for judging individual poets. Thus, Chaucer, Dryden, Pope, and Shelley fall short of the best, because they lack “high seriousness”. Even Shakespeare thinks too much of expression and too little of conception. Arnold’s ideal poets are Homer and Sophocles in the ancient world, Dante and Milton, and among moderns, Goethe and Wordsworth. Arnold puts Wordsworth in the front rank not for his poetry but for his “criticism of life”. It is curious that Byron is placed above Shelley. Arnold’s inordinate love of classicism made him blind to the beauty of lyricism, and we cannot accept Arnold’s view that Shelley’s poetry is less satisfactory than his prose writings.

Arnold’s criticism of life is often marred by his naive moralizing, by his inadequate perception of the relation between art and morality, and by his uncritical admiration of what he regarded as the golden sanity of the ancient Greeks. For all his championing of disinterestedness, Arnold was unable to practise disinterestedness in all his essays. In his essay on Shelley particularly, he displayed a lamentable lack of disinterestedness. Shelley’s moral views were too much for the Victorian Arnold. In his essay on Keats too Arnold failed to be disinterested. The sentimental letters of Keats to Fanny Brawne were too much for him. But Arnold’s insistence on the standards and his concern over the relation between poetry and life make him one of the great modern critics.

Source by Bhaskar Banerjee

Can Your Mortgage Foreclosure Case Really Be Dismissed?

It is true. A mortgage foreclosure case can be dismissed. Florida foreclosure fighting attorneys at the Florida law firms have been successful in dismissing residential mortgage foreclosure cases pending in the State of Florida. Utilizing knowledge, experience and persistence, defense attorneys are able to have mortgage foreclosure cases dismissed.

The internet provides access to a vast and variety of information, documentation and viewpoints on every possible issue imaginable. Harnassing that ability with reality allows even an unrepresented borrower the opportunity for success in defending a mortgage foreclosure case.

Dismissals of foreclosure proceedings may be the result of several different methods of defending the foreclosure actions and prosecuting claims against the bank for truth in lending violations and unfair and deceptive trade practices among other grounds. Of course, the fortunate clients are always ecstatic to learn of the success of these “Florida Foreclosure Fighters” in their respective cases. After receiving a copy of the dismissal, homeowners are certainly thrilled at the news.

Utilizing the right of rescission pursuant to the federal Truth in Lending Act, among other legal arguments, attorneys and legal advocates may quietly forced the plaintiff to dismiss the case against their clients. In this instance, if a borrower is unable to obtain or afford legal representation, the pro se defendant is able to access information relating to the applicable truth in lending laws to his or her particular situation.

Form rescission letters are typically and widely available on the internet or in a local law school library. Ordinarily, this forms contain guidelines for the applicability to a particular situation. Of the dismissed cases, several matters included foreclosures initiated by the former Indymac Federal Savings Bank now owned and operated by One West Bank. Part of the foreclosure defense team discovered loan errors and miscalculations during the law firm’s loan audit and examination. If you have refinanced your primary residence within the last three years to an adjustable rate mortgage, you should consider a careful and professional examination of your loan documents. Again, software programs are available for download on the internet to review and examine loan documents.

However, this process is slightly more complex if the pro se litigant is unfamiliar with mortgage terminology and identifying loan documents necessary for the process. However, there are services that are fairly inexpensive to obtain loan examination results. In other cases, the persistent and patient defense of the mortgage foreclosure case may lead to the case being dismissed at a status conference and/or show cause hearing before the presiding judge if the bank fails to timely move the case forward. In cases, such as the aforementioned matter, where the defendant is able to defend the case for some extended period of time, the judge often becomes frustrated with the case not advancing on the court calendar. In such instance, the court may dismiss the case for the bank’s failure to timely prosecute the case.

Common problems and issues existing in these cases included loans that were transferred and assigned through several parties and ultimately into a “trust”. The mortgage foreclosure cases filed by these unknown trust entities create many legal and procedural issues for the Plaintiff to overcome in order to properly complete the foreclosure. With the surfacing of the robosigning issues, the defenses in these cases have become more successful. Researching the existence of the loan trusts is also easier through the internet.

Helpful websites, such as Edgar Online, exist to illustrate where to search and for what information to examine. These websites provided access to databases of information and documentation required for filing and maintaining these trusts with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The borrower needs to use the internet as a research tool to learn and obtain information helpful in dealing with a foreclosure case. However, be wary of the information contained is such sites because the viewpoints may sound great, but are not a legal reality. Seeking the assistance of an experienced attorney is always a better option and more lawyers are providing these services at an affordable amount.

Source by Kevin Hagen

The Theory Behind Massage Therapy

Massage therapy is the practice of manipulating the soft tissues and muscles. Its goal is to provide the receiver with physical and psychological benefits. By manipulating the soft tissue and muscles with a series of orchestrated movements, massage is thought to result in relaxation and pain relief. Massage has been practiced in most cultures and since the beginning of recorded time.

The literal meaning of massage is friction of kneading. Kneading is one of the more famous movements. It is performed by making a side to side squeezing action. This is similar to the kneading action for making bread dough.

The use of massage can be found in the writings of many ancient civilizations. There are references in Chinese medical books and even references to massage in the Bible. There were references to the ancient Romans using it to treat some forms of illnesses.

Clearly, massage therapy has been used throughout the world to help restore health to the body. Many of these civilizations develop very distinct types of massage techniques. Each technique brings about slightly different benefits.

Some of the more famous techniques are Swedish massage, shiatsu, reflexology, acupressure and many more. Many of these techniques can now easily be found being offered in most spots around the world. They are also being integrated into massage chairs.

The practice of massage is about applying direct pressure to certain points in the body. When this is done correctly, it will bring relief to those areas. In scanning the techniques offered by massage therapy schools, there are approximately 200 variations of massage technique. These are constantly evolving and subject to interpretation by the therapist.

A new study was published in September 2004 that used a need for analysis of peer reviewed scientific journals using massage therapy and the adult population. The conclusion of the study is that massage therapy provides a wide range of physical and psychological benefits.

This study monitored the blood pressure, heart rate, negative mood, anxiety state and the immediate assessment of pain levels. The patients were given a single massage treatment once a week. According to the research, the average participant experienced a reduction and anxiety was greater than 64% over the control group.

The study also showed that it was effective in reducing blood pressure and heart rate. As results of this study, researchers theorize that massage may provide a benefit that parallels a model of psychotherapy. However, researchers do not believe that the benefits derived from massage are slowly psychological.

Another study conducted in May 2004 and published by the national Center for complementary and alternative medicine showed that massage was the ninth most popular form of alternative medicine. It also showed that 5% of the adult population used therapy at least once in the past 12 months. The popularity of massage treatments continues to rise.

So far, there have been very few studies the benefits of massage. The main problem with connecting clinical studies is the cost involved. Most companies have little incentive to fund massage therapy studies as there is no way to control the methods in order to profit. This is perhaps the biggest hurdle to getting thorough studies conducted. Unfortunately, most clinical studies are driven by the profit motive. These procedures need to be protected by intellectual property or there is little incentive to fund them.

Source by Claudine Balsells

The Importance Of The Strain Gauge

Products such as the strain gauge that measure fatigues in metals play vital roles in productivity and safety. There are many categories of measuring instruments and many more if the products within each category are counted. For example, within the category of strain gauges there are seven sub-categories including accessories such as cleaning agents and solder terminals. Such products are of vital significance in a world which is increasingly dependent on high-tech equipment.

As the world revolves a myriad of machines work smoothly to keep things going. Massive planes take to the skies in tremendous bursts of power, and at a different level coal powered and nuclear turbines keep the electricity flowing into domestic kitchens. The stresses imposed by heat and movement upon the material components of all the machines that power our lives do not in themselves cause break downs but are the causes that will inevitably result in effects. Engineers measure stress in mechanical components using a variety of means.

A strain gauge is a resistance-based sensor used by mechanical engineers. Strain does not officially have a unit of measurement, but for reference purposes, a special unit of measurement is used. Because the changes in length are often very small, the unit of change employed is expressed as 10 to the power of six, to provide meaningful readings.

There are various types and configurations of sensors. The metal foil gauge consists of a length of thin metal wire wound around a grid called a matrix. This is stuck to a metal backing and then bonded to the object where measurement is required. The gauge is aligned with the line in which stress will occur. As the wire lengthens or compresses, so measurements are taken.

Optical sensors are made of glass, of varying thicknesses. Fibres with a core of 5 micrometers are surrounded by a layer of pure glass with a diameter of 125 micrometers. Different reflection points create optical effects. As these gauges are insensitive to electromagnetic fields they are useful in explosive atmospheres.

Configurations of gauges can be designed to measure various strains that might apply to objects of different sizes and components. For example the bi-axial configuration can measure along different planes, as in a hole or cutting instrument. Here two different appliance are aligned at right angles to a common point in order to measure along different axes.

In addition to measuring mechanically, instruments can be designed to measure thermally. The forces applied to continuously welded railway lines occur vertically, longitudinally and laterally. Configurations of different instruments can provide vitally important data for maintenance crews, and help to ensure the safety of long distance and high speed trains.

It is clear that the strain gauge play an important role across the gamut of industrial activities. In mining, agriculture, architecture, construction and road building there are obvious applications. Less obvious, but equally important are the uses in the media, medicine and legal services. Engineers engaged across all these fields do well to choose the products of reputable manufacturers who can be relied upon to produce accurate measuring instruments.

Source by Adriana A Noton

All Time Top 10 Romantic Novels

There is a side of Paulo Coelho that is exotic, sexual, dark and daring. No married author would dare to write such things in their work that might talk about their sexual past or lustful fantasies that they might have experienced with a side of love in their golden days; Paulo Coelho has never been afraid of implementing such ideology in his books and novels. If we are discussing some of the best romantic novels of all time, he is number one on that list, even above Nora Roberts, Jodi Picoult, Danielle Steel and Kapiel Raaj. 11 minutes, one of Paulo Coelho’s most intense works has also been one of his most desirable. Although the Alchemist has been his most popular work, the readers found a new delight in 11 minutes.

The story of this novel is about a girl name Maria who travels from Rio De Janeiro to Geneva in hope to find a better future for herself and her family. She uses prostitution to make the bucks she always dreamed of, while educating herself through book in library while also finding a soul-mate in an artist who wanted nothing but 11 minutes to orgasm.

The story may be a bit more twisted than my explanation, but the title says it all, as it takes 11 minutes to orgasm and 11 minutes to fall in love. This is a must read for all who love spiritual romance. I call this spiritual romance because these are the themes of Paulo Coelho; finding love through spirituality.

Next on my list is one of my best International read of all time: Ashita, written by Kapiel Raaj. I came across his novel at a local stand inside a train station in India during my travel back in 2009, and it wasn’t a recommendation, rather a quick read to kill time while waiting for my train to Mumbai. I scanned the back of the book and quickly read the synopsis which suddenly grabbed my undivided attention. The short paragraph gave me a swift hint that this book might be a shadow of my favorite author Paulo Coelho’s work. The story was filled with the experience of finding a true soul mate with the serving of spirituality and mysticism during the journey. Could this be another Brida? I asked myself. I sat down on top of my suitcase as there was barely enough space for spider to crawl, but somehow I managed to take comfort on the hard plastic surface, while smell of dog pee and cow dung had already uncoiled my aura.

The story: Ashita was Adtiya’s soul, who left him for another man due to religious reasons and pressure from her family. A woman like Ashita came once every hundred years thought Aditya. She made him the man he was today; but Ashita’s life was now in god’s hands, and no one could do anything about it. But when Aditya finds out about her, he challenges god and his will. But what can Aditya do? He’s just an ordinary man.

What a beautiful way to introduce ones work to a reader, nevertheless, the tears began to flow from my eyes from the third page. I wish I could tell everything I knew about the story in this article, but that’s the beauty of story telling and books; you must go onto a journey before finding or reading about the destination. I was so much in love with this author, that I had to get his second tear jerker ‘Palena, and her royal guard’, which, too, turned out to be just as good and emotional as Ashita. In the age of free information, where everyone will have fifteen minutes of fame, we are surly seeing some worthy candidates which may not have shined so brightly without the emergence of digital world.

My Top 10 romantic novels of all time:

1. 11 Minutes by Paulo Coelho

2. Ashita by Kapiel Raaj

3. Great Expectations by Charles Dickens

4. Gone with the wind by Margaret Mitchell

5. Brida by Paulo Coelho

6. Black Rose by Nora Roberts

7. Pride and prejudice by Jane Austen

8. The 10th circle by Jodi Pichoult

9. The Zahir by Paulo Coelho

10. Palena, and her royal guard by Kapiel Raaj

Source by David C Andrews

Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management

One of the major factors militating against the development of sports in Nigeria today is lack of effective management. A lot of solutions are being proffered by concerned and patriotic Nigerians daily to bail us out the quagmire. One of such solutions is this text entitled “Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management”. It is written by Dr. Joseph Awoyinfa, a lecturer in the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria; a researcher and educational consultant. I was the person invited by the author and the university to review the book when it was presented to the public on December 4, 2008 in Nigeria.

According to Awoyinfa, it is a truism all over the world that sport is now a reference issue which can no longer be ignored at various sectors of the economy and spheres of life. The author adds that this text thus takes a critical look at topical issues in sports administration and management, dwelling on theories and principles of modern trends in sports administration and management such as leadership, organisation, planning, motivation, etc.

The text contains 16 chapters. Chapter one is christened “the concept of sports management”. Here, Awoyinfa says management is a concept that implies different things to different people at different times, thus leading to its multiplicity of definitions. He explains that management has been variously described as an art, a science, a person or people, a discipline and a process.

This author expatiates that as an art, sports management is all about carrying out sports organisational functions and tasks through people; while as a science, sports management is about establishing sports philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices. As an organisation, according to him, sports management is defined as a means of creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission, objectives, targets, functions and tasks.

Awoyinfa says as a person or group of people, sports management may refer to the head alone or to all the senior staff, committee, etc.; while as a discipline, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. The author illuminates that sports management as a process is about a systematic way of doing things. Awoyinfa highlights management functions in sports administration as planning, organising, staffing, directing/leading, controlling, coordination, budgeting and evaluation. On whom a sports manager is, this author educates that a sports manager is anyone at any level of sport organisation who directs

the efforts of other people towards the achievement of organisational goals sport-wise.

Chapter two is based on the subject matter of evolution and trends of sports management thought. Here, Awoyinfa discloses that the development of thoughts on sports management dates back to the days when people first attempted to accomplish goals by working together in a group. In his words, “There was serious thinking and theorising about managing many years before the dawn of the twentieth (20th) century, which marked the beginning of modern sports management thought. Major efforts to develop theories and principles of sports management began from the early twentieth (20th) century with the work of Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth (19th) century probably provided the climate for this very serious theorising.”

Awoyinfa adds that since the turn of the 20th century, writers on sports management and business theory have been propounding different theories about how to manage work and personnel more efficiently and effectively. This author educates that the three main schools of management thought are: the classical; the human-behavioural; and the integrative. Awoyinfa also highlights early sports management theorists; principles and characteristics of scientific management; appraisal of the scientific management theory, etc., in this chapter.

Chapter three is thematically labelled “principles of sports management”. In this chapter, the educational consultant explains that sports principles are the basic laws on which the practice of sports management is built. He adds that management principles must therefore be based on general terms for them to be applicable within sport organisations of varying sizes and character. “Modern sports managers and administrators are expected to be able to identify and use appropriate principles that are relevant to particular situations. This is because no single principle can suit all administrative situations,” submits Awoyinfa.

He says the fundamental principles of sports are those applicable to all sports organisations and as a result of their general acceptability, they are sometimes referred to as “universal principles of sports management”. This author expatiates that some of these principles are: responsibility; delegation of authority and communication. As regards humanitarian principles of sports management, Awoyinfa identifies these as democracy, justice, human relations, sympathy, empathy, consideration and humility.

In chapter four based on the concept of behavioural and motivational theories in sports organisation, the author says human beings are unique creatures as they behave differently under different conditions and are mostly difficult to predict. Awoyinfa stresses that since human beings constitute the most important element in sports organisation, sports managers need some understanding of why people behave in one way or the other, so that they (sports managers) can influence people to perform exactly the way sports organisations find desirable.

One potent instrument this author suggests that can be used to elicit performance in athletes is motivation. In his words, “Motivation is something needed in sports organisations to make employees perform.

However, it has been an important and a puzzling subject for sports managers.” Awoyinfa further discusses development of motivational concepts in sports organisation; application of motivational theories to sports management; methods of behaviour modification, etc., in this chapter.

In chapters five to ten, the author beams his analytical searchlight on subject matters such as management techniques in sports organisation; the concept of sports organisation; setting design in sports organisation; the concept of planning in sports administration; making sports organisations more effective in Nigeria and staffing in sports organisations.

Chapter 11 is based on communication strategies in sports organisation. According to Awoyinfa here, communication is a crucial factor in any organisational effectiveness because organisations cannot function effectively when communication skills are lacking among members. “Since communication is the moving spirit in an organisation, its absence may make organisations standstill,” asserts this author.

In chapters 12 to 16, Awoyinfa X-rays concepts such as organisational changes and development in sports administration; leadership in sports administration and management; administration and management of soccer as a coach; teaching human kinetics and health education in schools and colleges; and organisation and administration of schools at various levels of education.

As regards mode of presentation, this text scores a pass mark. For instance, the language is comprehensible and the ideas are brilliantly articulated. The simplicity of the language is expected, given the author’s dual professional background as a lecturer and pastor. To ensure easy study of the text on readers’ part, Awoyinfa highlights the objectives of each chapter at the beginning and ends with review/revision questions.

What’s more, he creatively embroiders the text with graphics (pages 50, 97, 317, 330, 338, 395, etc.) to enhance readers’ understanding through visual communication. Awoyinfa includes references at the end of each chapter to fulfil academic obligation of source disclosure and offer readers opportunities to read more. Inclusion of many references also confirms the depth of his research. His use of visual distinction for the phrase “Modern Trends” in the title is emphatically creative.

If there are chapters that really make this text qualified as a compendium of modern solutions to the administrative and management problems plaguing our sports development in Nigeria, they are chapters four, eight, 11 and 13. This is because they discuss motivation, planning, communication and leadership respectively.

Meanwhile, the thematically greatest chapter of all is chapter four. The fact that it is consciously or unconsciously taken to be the greatest chapter finds practical expression in the deeper communication and cohesion between its subject matter on the one hand and the outer front cover’s allegorical visuals or metaphorical images such as goal post, cyclists racing, a lawn tennis player poised for action with her bat, sprinters competing and footballers struggling for ball possession, on the other hand. These are images used for illustration in motivational discourse.

However, some errors are noticed in this text. The errors are “Acknowledgement” (page iii), instead of “Acknowledgements”; non-paragraphing of the natural first few paragraphs of “Preface”; “Loosing” (pages 396 and 404), instead of “Losing”, etc. These errors need to be corrected in the next edition.

On a note of analytical finality, this text is a compendium of irresistible sports management tips. It is a must-read for all stakeholders in the sports sector, especially managers and administrators. It is simply fascinating.

GOKE ILESANMI, Editor-in-Chief/CEO of and Managing Consultant/CEO of Gokmar Communication Consulting, is a Certified Public Speaker/Emcee, (Business) Communication Specialist, Motivational Speaker, Career Management Coach, Renowned Book Reviewer, Corporate Leadership Expert and Editorial Consultant.

For business discussion, reach him on +234(0)8055068773; +234(0)8056030424


Source by Goke Ilesanmi

Do All Students Deserve Your Full Time and Attention?

Let’s face it, teaching adult students takes a great deal of time and energy. When you are assigned a large class size, the number of students and associated responsibilities that are vying for your attention increases and this can create a time crunch. If you teach courses in a traditional college classroom you know how much time it takes to develop lectures and grade papers or exams. Online instructors, especially in the for-profit online school industry, may not have to develop course materials – but they usually have weekly discussions and feedback expectations that demands a significant investment of time. For example, one online school expects their instructors to be involved in class discussions during five out of seven days, provide feedback for assignments within a week, and write weekly feedback reports. You can probably estimate the amount of time that instructor spends on class facilitation. Add to that the fact that most instructors are hired as adjuncts and likely working full time as well.

What does all of this mean for your students? When I was an online student, I was very independent, yet it mattered to me to “see” my instructor actively engaged in the class and interested in how I was performing. As a faculty development specialist, what I have observed is that those students who are performing poorly are the ones who receive the most attention. This is not necessarily because they are interacting with their instructors one-on-one, but instead it was due to the intensive effort required to provide feedback. This means that a student who is doing well will often fly under an instructor’s radar as they seemingly have no need for additional assistance. I’ve seen many well-written papers returned to students with only a few short comments provided, if any comments at all, and little attempt on the instructor’s part to engage them in the subject matter.

I admit that I used to feel that same way when I first began teaching online. I mapped out tasks that needed to be completed for the upcoming week, calculated the amount of time it would likely take to fully finish those tasks, and then breathed a sigh of relief when I began working on feedback and read a well-developed paper. It seemingly made my job easier, and took less time, to have perfect papers. However, I learned early on that this approach can actually work against an instructor, especially if students believe they are working on their own and no one seems to care. I quickly discovered that when students feel left alone, especially in an online class, they can easily disengage. It didn’t take long for me to realize that every student deserves my full time and attention, regardless of how well or poorly they perform, and that all students have developmental needs to consider and address – even the very best of them.

Analyzing a Spectrum of Students and Duties

Every class presents an endless possible combination of student backgrounds, experiences, points of view, and developmental needs. However, it is possible to provide a general statement that summarizes the typical spectrum of students that can be found in a college undergraduate class. I am utilizing my experience in online teaching and online faculty development within the for-profit online school industry as my point of view, as that is where the majority of my experience in higher education has been. For a typical class, ten percent of the students could be rated as above average, thirty percent rated as average, and sixty percent of students would be rated as below average. Again, these are averages that are based upon undergraduate or less experienced students.

Consider now the spectrum of duties that a typical adjunct online instructor would be required to perform each week of the class. Classroom management would take approximately ten percent of the instructor’s time, and include duties such as responding to questions, posting announcements, etc. Posting participation messages would take a minimum of thirty percent of an instructor’s weekly allocated time, and sixty percent of the time spent each week would be devoted to providing feedback. This is making an assumption that an instructor will download student papers and provide feedback within those papers. There is a reason for comparing the types of students to the time an instructor spends while facilitating a class, and it is related to the amount of time and attention that is provided for every student.

First, an instructor will spend a majority of their week concerned with providing feedback and meeting all contractual deadlines. The type and quality of feedback provided usually is in direct correlation to the type of student and the quality of the papers they have submitted. For an above average student, the quality of the paper will generally be on par with the expected response for the assignment, along with meeting the mandatory academic writing standards. For an average student, the content will likely be on target (or what would be minimally acceptable for an average grade) and any developmental issues would be related to academic writing. That is where the focus of many instructors will be when reviewing an average paper – addressing the writing issues.

Finally, a below average student will require the most time as the content of the paper and the academic writing will likely both have areas of needed development. It is easy to understand why, as a paper that is poorly written and not completely on target is going to be difficulty to read, comprehend, and assess. I remember when I was new to online teaching and I reviewed papers similar to what I have described. There was an initial sense of dread because I knew that there were many issues that needed to be addressed and that would slow down the process of providing feedback, while also taking more of my time. More importantly, if I focused on every negative element I would have little positive comments to make. Through my work with online faculty, I know there is also a tendency to focus on the writing issues first, and the content is often left unaddressed. I used to take that same approach as a new online instructor.

What this presents is an instructional approach that focuses on problematic, academically under-prepared, and below average students first – leaving a majority of the above average students (and even some of the average students) having a lesser amount of the instructor’s time. This is similar in nature to the squeaky wheel analogy, where the students with the greatest needs, and those who speak up the most, are the ones who have received the most time and attention from their instructor. While this is certainly understandable, from an instructor’s perspective, it can create an environment that is not optimal for learning. It is likely that some students will not speak up or ask for assistance out of fear, feelings of intimidation, negative perceptions about their instructor’s disposition, or simply not being conditioned to ask questions. For online courses, the distance factor also creates additional barriers for students.

Providing Time and Attention to Every Student

There is no question that every student is deserving of an instructor’s time and attention. Even during the busiest of class weeks, and a time when the list of papers to review never seems to end, it is possible to demonstrate to students that their instructor has time for them and is concerned about their progress – regardless of how well-developed or under-developed their academic skills may be. From my own experience, I believe there are four key areas within an instructor’s teaching practice that can be leveraged to demonstrated availability for their students.

#1. Interactions and Communication: Every interaction with your students is important. It helps to establish a working relationship that can become productive, leading to greater cooperation and acceptance of your feedback on the part of every student. Your interactions should be professional, rational, and warm. All communication should be thoughtful, with a tone that is responsive rather than reactive and emotional. Students will sense or perceive your disposition based upon the tone of the message. If you encourage them to ask questions, and you provide helpful assistance in a welcoming manner, your students will feel valued. This is also an opportunity to demonstrate appreciation, which can boost their morale and self-confidence.

#2. Feedback for Written Assignments: I understand that an easy to read paper, with strong academic writing, may seem like an opportunity to save time; however, every paper should take the same amount of time. I start by looking at the content and after reading through the paper once, I try to understand the student’s perspective. Then I consider what the assignment parameters are and the topics that need to be addressed, along with the required learning objectives that students are expected to meet. After evaluating an assignment often enough you will have a good idea of what is acceptable and what you expect students to address.

I attempt to interact with students through the content of what they have written by inserting comments and asking questions. The goal is to engage them further in the topic, while providing my own insight to help them expand upon their perspectives. At the very least, it will affirm that they are on the right track but often it helps them understand the topics better. As to the expected academic writing standards, I have learned to make suggestions rather than correct what was written or demand compliance. I also try to coach students by prompting them to utilize the available resources, including any supplemental sources I may share to address specific needs.

#3. Sharing Your Experience and Perspective: A challenge for instructors who work with pre-developed courses is that their voice may not be present in the structured materials. I have found methods of sharing my experience and perspective through the use of course announcements and crafting substantive discussion responses. Through the inclusion of course announcements, I can summarize weekly topics, provide a preview of upcoming topics, and share supplemental materials and resources. More importantly, I am sharing my expertise through these strategies. When online students “see” an instructor actively involved in this matter, it creates an appearance (and perception) that they are truly involved in the class. It also demonstrates that the instructor has devoted the time necessary to create optimal conditions for learning.

#4. Being a Mentor to Your Students: The most engaging instructional practice an instructor can implement is to act like a mentor and coach for their students. The amount of time this requires depends upon the instructor and his or her willingness to create optimal class conditions. Some of the methods I have utilized, beyond the feedback methods described, is to send check-in emails to students on occasion. This helps to create a sense of connection with my students. If a student is struggling, or hasn’t been present in class recently, I will email and/or call the student – depending upon their availability. This lets them know that someone cares and that can often make a difference with students and their ability to persist whenever they feel challenged. I want to mentor them by being a support system and coach, helping to nurture their academic development, which in turns creates positive feelings that are internalized.

There is no question that every student needs to feel valued and know that their instructors are available for them. Answering a question in a caring manner may be all that it takes to demonstrate you have time for them and they are not just a randomly assigned student number in your class. Students also need to know that you are present and engaged in the course, and this serves as a model for them to emulate for their own level of involvement. I am certain that if you are teaching now, you care about your students. Just be sure you have allocated enough time each week to be available for them, and make extra time available when needed to help address their needs. I understand the challenge of teaching as an adjunct while you are also maintaining other responsibilities; however, consider how good it will feel for you and your students when you see them flourishing as a result of the time and attention you devote each week.

Source by Dr. Bruce A. Johnson

Aion Quest Guides – Aion Abyss Access Quest Guide For Elyos

The access quest to the Abyss areas in Aion Online is quite tricky, so to get over with this part of the game I had to work with a few Aion quest guides. This quest is very important for any player, so as you reach level 25, you should leave all the other quests you’re at, and start this quest chain. Entering the Abyss will grant you access to quests with enhanced XP and AP (Abyss Points) rewards, and most of the creatures here are excellent to grind on, for XP, AP, Kinah and PvP gear.

So, in this article, I’m going to put together all the steps for the Abyss entry quest for Elyos, information that I’ve gathered from the Aion quest guides I’ve been studying. Here’s what you need to do.

As I said, as soon as you reach level 25, you become eligible for this quest, so stop everything else that you are doing and focus on completing it. At level 25, you will be given the quest “Testing Your Mettle”, quest that starts the Abyss entry quest chain. You will need to go to the Sanctum and speak to Jucleas, the same guy who made you a Daeva. After the quick cutscene, the quest will update and you will be sent to speak with Rinos. This NPC can be found at the back of the Coliseum and after speaking with him, he will send you back to Jucleas to complete this part of the quest.

The second part of this quest chain, as I’ve learned from the Aion quest guides I worked with, is called “The Abyss Quiz”. The NPCs for this part are at the Library of Sages, the Northern point of the Sanctum. They are Gromoros, Nestor and Xenophon. For this part, the 3 NPCs are going to ask you some questions and you will be given a for each question a set of 3 answers. The answers are pretty obvious, but I will write them here anyway, just in case you aren’t sure about one or two.

– Gromoros –

1s question – 1st answer – The Tower of Eternity’s destruction;

2nd question – 2nd answer – It drains Aetheric Energy from Atreia;

3rd question – 1st answer – Third Statement Is false;

– Nestor –

1s question – 2nd answer – During the Cataclysm;

2nd question – 2nd answer – Was it not in Veteron?;

3rd question – 1st answer – The Storm Legion, led by Deltras;

– Xenophon –

1s question – 3rd answer – The Guardian Deity General must be destroyed;

2nd question – 3rd answer – The Third Statement is false;

3rd question – 3rd answer – The Third Statement is false;

After finishing with the quiz, the quest will take you to Fuchsia. This NPC will give you a quest with three options as well. Always pick up “I will go to Eltnen” as this is the easiest. So, go to Eltnen Fortress and speak with General Telemachus for the next step. He will send you to kill 3 Roaring Monitors, found in the Putrid Mire, Foraging Kurin, found within the western part of Eiron Desert and Bighorn Baku at Ruberein Wasteland, South of Eiron Desert. Return to Telemachus and turn in the quest.

The last part of the Abyss entry quest for Elyos, as these Aion quest guides have shown me, will take you Daedalus, right outside of Eltnen Fortress. He will give you one last test. For this part, you will have to fly within 1:40 minutes through 6 portals. After you finish, speak with Daedalus, then with Telemachus to finish your quest and gain access to the Abyss.

Now, the Aion quest guides I’ve been working with didn’t just help me to with my access quest to the Abyss. I’ve also managed to improve my leveling time, maintaining a high and constant XP flow. Therefore, I strongly recommend them to anyone that wants to level faster and knock down the boring 50 Aion levels in short time.

Source by Phillip O’Riley

Did Freud Accept Or Reject Mysticism?

In “New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis”, Freud discusses his views on mysticism and psychoanalysis. The concept of mysticism has changed throughout the ages. In ancient times, a mystic was one who communed with God. In Freud’s world, the word mysticism became an all-inclusive word describing paranormal phenomenon occurring outside the laws of nature and science. Science tended to dismiss or ignore mystical ideas because they were viewed as superstitious, irrational and nonsensical. Freud associated the word mysticism with séances, voices from other worlds, noises, apparitions, levitation, trances and prophecies (Coward, 1977, p. 1). Freud also had a reputation of being hostile to mysticism and was opposed to integrating mystical ideas into psychoanalysis. His friendship with Carl Jung ended due to Jung’s beliefs in spiritual and mystical concepts (Wagner, 2008).

At the beginning of the lecture, Freud offers an unflattering view of mysticism and speaks condescendingly toward the subject by refusing to offer any specific definition for the the word itself. He says, “You must not expect me to make any attempt at embracing this ill-circumscribed region with definitions”. Freud says “we all know about this other world” of mysticism which exists beyond the proven laws of science. Subsequently, he discusses mysticism as if the audience is skeptical toward the subject.

From a psychological perspective, Freud is arguing that mankind tends to believe in miracles and the paranormal. He says people become bored with reality, and ‘reason’ is not exciting enough for them to find pleasure in. He claims that people embrace the intriguing nature of mysticism because it adds excitement to their mundane lives. Freud acknowledges mankind’s fascination with the unseen and the miraculous, but claims that ‘reason and science’ are mankind’s greatest strengths.

Historically, Freud says mysticism offers nothing new for mankind. He argues that mysticism helps religions ward off the advancement of science, and says religious reports of prophecies, apparitions and miracles are imaginative fables filled with nonsense, fraud and ignorance. However, Freud admits there is no way to prove or disprove these assertions, and whatever occurred in ancient times cannot be tested or validated today. He claims that those who follow mystical teachings are charlatans, quacks, mind-readers and liars.

However, despite denouncing mysticism at the beginning of the lecture, Freud decides to discuss mysticism as if it were scientific material. During the lecture, he informs the audience that he will elevate the subject of mysticism to the level of scientific inquiry. He is fully aware that he is going against the tide of intellectual, psychological and historical factors. He changes his tone, and argues that any scientific theory must be reasonable in accordance with the laws of nature. He cites an example of the Earth’s center being filled with heavy metals instead of jam as a reasonable assumption. He says a mystical hypothesis might claim there is ‘jam at the center of the Earth’, thus lending itself to immediate rejection. However, Freud points out that the immediate rejection of any theory can be “erroneous and detrimental”. He remembers the negative reaction he received from the medical community when he wrote about the existence of ‘the unconscious’. Freud says he encountered the same type of condemnation that mystics have experienced throughout the ages. Consequently, he cautions his audience not to reject a hypothesis based solely on intellectual considerations.

Surprisingly, at the end of the lecture, Freud questions his own skepticism toward mysticism, “If one regards oneself as a skeptic, it is a good plan to have occasional doubts about one’s skepticism too. It may be that I too have a secret inclination towards the miraculous which thus goes halfway to meet the creation of occult facts.” (Freud, 1965, p. 53) Going “halfway” toward accepting occult “facts” represents a major shift in Freud’s thinking. He is no longer rejecting the concept of mysticism, and is admitting being intuitively drawn to its unscientific explanations. However, he does not embrace mysticism by any means, but is fascinated by the possibilities of the unknown and the unseen. Therefore, Freud is not viewing mysticism with utter skepticism, and is expressing his curiosity about ‘other worldly’ mysteries that science may never be able to explain.

Works Cited

Coward, H. G. (1977). Mystics and scholars: The calgary conference on mysticism,1976. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

Freud, S. (1965). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. (J. Strachey, Trans.) New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Wagner, K.V. (2008). Carl Jung biography (1875-1961). Retrieved March 13, 2008.

Source by R Waxman

An Introduction To Teacher Education

A teacher’s job is a highly respected and specialized field, be it teaching kindergarten, grade school, high school, college, or post-graduate courses. Teachers are necessary in all fields of education, and in order to be teachers themselves, they need to be educated by experts in their desired fields.

Teacher education is a diverse field, covering numerous subjects and various methods of teaching. Teaching in any field is demanding and is a challenging task. Beyond regular education, some people choose to follow specialized paths, such as early childhood education or special education. These teachers need extra educational background in order to be certified to deal with their specific students. These teachers need to have extensive patience and be friendly with toddlers. Innovative play way methods need to be adopted to ensure continuing interest among kids.

Another specialized educational field is Montessori teaching. This style of teaching appears to be simple, but in reality, it is highly demanding. As this is a specific style of teaching, aimed at gifted or advanced students, with a degree of flexibility and customization not found in traditional curriculums, teachers will need to learn the best ways to work within the Montessori structure, and apply their educational background to this style of teaching.

Elementary or primary school is the backbone for all people’s education. Thus, these teachers have to be able to convey basic principles, such as reading, spelling, writing and math, as well as cover basic science, social studies, and sometimes foreign language courses. Of course, all of this has to be taught in an age-appropriate fashion. Elementary teacher education focuses on methods that work best for young students.

High school teachers face challenges elementary school teachers usually do not. Because they teach teenagers who are dealing with the issues of adolescence and can often “act out,” teachers need to learn how to engage and motivate this difficult age group. Subjects are taught in greater depth in high school, as well, so the teacher will need more specific knowledge. They also sometimes have to be ready to compensate for any gaps in elementary education, particularly deficiencies in the basics – reading, writing and math.

Ultimately, the goal of teacher education is to provide future teachers – or teachers looking to further develop their teaching ability – with the skills they need to convey essential information to their students. The training they will require depends on many factors, including the age group, subjects, and type of school they will be teaching in.

Source by Ken Marlborough